PRESIDENTIAL  DECREE  NO.  902-A  -  REORGANIZATION  OF THE   SECURITIES   AND   EXCHANGE   COMMISSION   WITH ADDITIONAL  POWERS  AND  PLACING  THE  SAID  AGENCY UNDER   THE   ADMINISTRATIVE   SUPERVISION   OF   THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

 
Section  5.     In   addition  to  the  regulatory  and  adjudicative functions   of   the   Securities   and   Exchange   Commission   over orporations,   partnerships   and   other   forms   of   associations
registered  with  it  as  expressly  granted  under  existing  laws  and decrees, it shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction to hear and decide cases involving.
 
a)    Devices or schemes employed by or any acts, of the board of directors,   business   associates,   its   officers   or   partnership, amounting   to   fraud   and   misrepresentation   which   may   be detrimental to the interest of the public and/or of the stockholder, partners, members of associations or organizations registered with he Commission;
 
b)     Controversies  arising  out  of  intra-corporate  or  partnership relations,   between   and   among   stockholders,   members,   or associates;  between  any  or  all  of  them  and  the  corporation, partnership   or   association   of   which   they   are   stockholders, embers    or    associates,    respectively;    and    between    such corporation,  partnership  or  association and the state insofar as  it
concerns their individual franchise or right to exist as such entity;

c)     Controversies  in  the  election  or  appointments  of  directors, trustees,  officers  or  managers  of  such  corporations,  partnerships or associations.
 
d) Petitions of corporations, partnerships or associations to be declared in the state of suspension of payments in cases where    the    corporation,    partnership    or    association possesses  sufficient  property  to  cover  all  its  debts  but foresees  the  impossibility  of  meeting  them  when  they
respectively  fall  due  or  in  cases  where  the  corporation, partnership or association has no sufficient assets to cover its   liabilities,   but   is   under   the    management   of   a Rehabilitation  Receiver  or  Management  Committee  created pursuant to this Decree.
 
Section 6.    In  order to effectively exercise such jurisdiction, the Commission      shall      possess      the      following      powers:  xxx
 
c) To appoint one or more receivers of the property, real or personal, which is the subject of the action pending before the Commission in accordance with the pertinent provisions of   the   Rules   of   Court   in   such   other   cases   whenever necessary  in  order  to  preserve  the  rights  of  the  parties-
litigants and/or protect the interest of the investing public and  creditors.  Provided,  however,  That  the  Commission may, in appropriate cases, appoint a Rehabilitation Receiver who  shall  have,  in  addition  to  the  powers  of  a  regular receiver  under  the  provisions  of  the  Rules  of  Court,  such functions and powers as are provided for in the succeeding paragraph    d)    hereof.    Provided,    further,    that    upon
appointment  of  a  management  committee,  rehabilitation receiver, board or body, pursuant to this Decree, all actions for     claims     against     corporations,     partnerships     or associations  under  management  or  receivership  pending before   any   court,   tribunal,   board   or   body   shall   be
suspended accordingly.
 
d) To create and appoint a management committee, board, or  body  upon  petition  or  motu  propio  to  undertake  the management    of    corporations,    partnerships    or    other associations  in  appropriate  cases  when  there  is  imminent danger of dissipation, loss, wastage or destruction of assets or  other  properties  or  paralyzation  of  business  operations of such corporations or entities which may be prejudicial to the  interest  of  minority  stockholders,  parties-litigants  or the general public.
 
The   management   committee   or   rehabilitation   receiver, board or body shall have the power to take custody of and control  over,  all  the  existing  assets  and  property  of  such entities under management; to evaluate the existing assets and     liabilities,     earnings     and     operations     of     such corporations,    partnerships    or    other    associations;    to
determine the best way to salvage and protect the interest of   the   investors   and   creditors;   to   study,   review   and evaluate   the   feasibility   of   continuing   operations   and restructure  and  rehabilitate  such  entities  if  determined  to be  feasible  by  the  Commission.  It  shall  report  and  be
responsible  to  the  Commission  until  dissolved  by  order  of the Commission. Provided,  however,  That the  Commission, may,  on  the  basis  of  the  findings  and  recommendation  of the   management   committee,   or   rehabilitation   receiver, board  or  body,  or  on  its  own  findings,  determine  that  the
continuance in business of such corporation or entity would not be feasible or profitable nor work to the best interest of the stockholders, parties-litigants, creditors, or the general public, order the dissolution of such corporation entity and its     remaining     assets     liquidated     accordingly.     The management committee or rehabilitation receiver, board or body  may  overrule  or  revoke  the  actions  of  the  previous
management and board of directors of the entity or entities under  management  notwithstanding  any  provision  of  law, articles of incorporation or by-laws to the contrary. 

The   management  committee,   or   rehabilitation  receiver, board  or  body  shall  not  be  subject  to  any  action,  claim  or demand for, or in connection with, any act done or omitted to be done by it in good faith in the exercise of its functions, or  in  connection  with  the  exercise  of  its  power  herein
conferred. 

December 18, 1974

ORDAINING AND INSTITUTING AN INSURANCE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

    I, Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers in me vested by the Constitution, do hereby decree and order the following:

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 1. This Decree shall be known as "The Insurance Code".

Sec. 2. Whenever used in this Code, the following terms shall have the respective meanings hereinafter set forth or indicated, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) A "contract of insurance" is an agreement whereby one undertakes for a consideration to indemnify another against loss, damage or liability arising from an unknown or contingent event.

A contract of suretyship shall be deemed to be an insurance contract, within the meaning of this Code, only if made by a surety who or which, as such, is doing an insurance business as hereinafter provided.

(2) The term "doing an insurance business" or "transacting an insurance business", within the meaning of this Code, shall include:

      (a) making or proposing to make, as insurer, any insurance contract;

      (b) making or proposing to make, as surety, any contract of suretyship as a vocation and not as merely incidental to any other legitimate business or activity of the surety;

      (c) doing any kind of business, including a reinsurance business, specifically recognized as constituting the doing of an insurance business within the meaning of this Code;

      (d) doing or proposing to do any business in substance equivalent to any of the foregoing in a manner designed to evade the provisions of this Code.

In the application of the provisions of this Code the fact that no profit is derived from the making of insurance contracts, agreements or transactions or that no separate or direct consideration is received therefor, shall not be deemed conclusive to show that the making thereof does not constitute the doing or transacting of an insurance business.

(3) As used in this code, the term "Commissioner" means the "Insurance Commissioner".

Chapter 1
THE CONTRACT OF INSURANCE

Title 1
WHAT MAY BE INSURED

Sec. 3. Any contingent or unknown event, whether past or future, which may damnify a person having an insurable interest, or create a liability against him, may be insured against, subject to the provisions of this chapter.

The consent of the husband is not necessary for the validity of an insurance policy taken out by a married woman on her life or that of her children.

Any minor of the age of eighteen years or more, may, notwithstanding such minority, contract for life, health and accident insurance, with any insurance company duly authorized to do business in the Philippines, provided the insurance is taken on his own life and the beneficiary appointed is the minor's estate or the minor's father, mother, husband, wife, child, brother or sister.

The married woman or the minor herein allowed to take out an insurance policy may exercise all the rights and privileges of an owner under a policy.

All rights, title and interest in the policy of  insurance taken out by an original owner on the life or health of a minor shall automatically vest in the minor upon the death of the original owner, unless otherwise provided for in the policy.

Sec. 4. The preceding section does not authorize an insurance for or against the drawing of any lottery, or for or against any chance or ticket in a lottery drawing a prize.

Sec. 5. All kinds of insurance are subject to the provisions of this chapter so far as the provisions can apply.

Title 2
PARTIES TO THE CONTRACT

Sec. 6. Every person, partnership, association, or corporation duly authorized to transact insurance business as elsewhere provided in this code, may be an insurer.

Sec. 7. Anyone except a public enemy may be insured.

Sec. 8. Unless the policy otherwise provides, where a mortgagor of property effects insurance in his own name providing that the loss shall be payable to the mortgagee, or assigns a policy of insurance to a mortgagee, the insurance is deemed to be upon the interest of the mortgagor, who does not cease to be a party to the original contract, and any act of his, prior to the loss, which would otherwise avoid the insurance, will have the same effect, although the property is in the hands of the mortgagee, but any act which, under the contract of insurance, is to be performed by the mortgagor, may be performed by the mortgagee therein named, with the same effect as if it had been performed by the mortgagor.

Sec. 9. If an insurer assents to the transfer of an insurance from a mortgagor to a mortgagee, and, at the time of his assent, imposes further obligation on the assignee, making a new contract with him, the act of the mortgagor cannot affect the rights of said assignee.

Title 3
INSURABLE INTEREST

Sec. 10. Every person has an insurable interest in the life and health:

      (a) Of himself, of his spouse and of his children;

      (b) Of any person on whom he depends wholly or in part for education or support, or in whom he has a pecuniary interest;

      (c) Of any person under a legal obligation to him for the payment of money, or respecting property or services, of which death or illness might delay or prevent the performance; and

      (d) Of any person upon whose life any estate or interest vested in him depends.

Sec. 11. The insured shall have the right to change the beneficiary he designated in the policy, unless he has expressly waived this right in said policy.

Sec. 12. The interest of a beneficiary in a life insurance policy shall be forfeited when the beneficiary is the principal, accomplice, or accessory in willfully bringing about the death of the insured; in which event, the nearest relative of the insured shall receive the proceeds of said insurance if not otherwise disqualified.

Sec. 13. Every interest in property, whether real or personal, or any relation thereto, or liability in respect thereof, of such nature that a contemplated peril might directly damnify the insured, is an insurable interest.

Sec. 14. An insurable interest in property may consist in:

      (a) An existing interest;

      (b) An inchoate interest founded on an existing interest; or

      (c) An expectancy, coupled with an existing interest in that out of which the expectancy arises.

Sec. 15. A carrier or depository of any kind has an insurable interest in  a thing held by him as such, to the extent of his liability but not to exceed the value thereof.

Sec. 16. A mere contingent or expectant interest in anything, not founded on an actual right to the thing, nor upon any valid contract for it, is not insurable.

Sec. 17. The measure of an insurable interest in property is the extent to which the insured might be damnified by loss or injury thereof.

Sec. 18. No contract or policy of insurance on property shall be enforceable except for the benefit of some person having an insurable interest in the property insured.

Sec. 19. An interest in property insured must exist when the insurance takes effect, and when the loss occurs, but not exist in the meantime; and interest in the life or health of a person insured must exist when the insurance takes effect, but need not exist thereafter or when the loss occurs.

Sec. 20. Except in the cases specified in the next four sections, and in the cases of life, accident, and health insurance, a change of interest in any part of a thing insured unaccompanied by a corresponding change in interest in the insurance, suspends the insurance to an equivalent extent, until the interest in the thing and the interest in the insurance are vested in the same person.

Sec. 21. A change in interest in a thing insured, after the occurrence of an injury which results in a loss, does not affect the right of the insured to indemnity for the loss.

Sec. 22. A change of interest in one or more several distinct things, separately insured by one policy, does not avoid the insurance as to the others.

Sec. 23. A change on interest, by will or succession, on the death of the insured, does not avoid an insurance; and his interest in the insurance passes to the person taking his interest in the thing insured.

Sec. 24. A transfer of interest by one of several partners, joint owners, or owners in common, who are jointly insured, to the others, does not avoid an insurance even though it has been agreed that the insurance shall cease upon an alienation of the thing insured.

Sec. 25. Every stipulation in a policy of insurance for the payment of loss whether the person insured has or has not any interest in the property insured, or that the policy shall be received as proof of such interest, and every policy executed by way of gaming or wagering, is void.

Title 4
CONCEALMENT

Sec. 26. A neglect to communicate that which a party knows and ought to communicate, is called a concealment.

Sec. 27. A concealment whether intentional or unintentional entitles the injured party to rescind a contract of insurance. (As amended by Batasang Pambansa Blg.  874)

Sec. 28. Each party to a contract of insurance must communicated to the other, in good faith, all facts within his knowledge which are material to the contract and as to which he makes no warranty, and which the other has not the means of ascertaining.

Sec. 29. An intentional and fraudulent omission, on the part of one insured, to communicate information of matters proving or tending to prove the falsity of a warranty, entitles the insurer to rescind.

Sec. 30. Neither party to a contract of insurance is bound to communicate information of the matters following, except in answer to the inquiries of the other:

      (a) Those which the other knows;

      (b) Those which, in the exercise of ordinary care, the other ought to know, and of which the former has no reason to suppose him ignorant;

      (c) Those of which the other waives communication;

      (d) Those which prove or tend to prove the existence of a risk excluded by a warranty, and which are not otherwise material; and

      (e) Those which relate to a risk excepted from the policy and which are not otherwise material.

Sec. 31. Materiality is to be determined not by the event, but solely by the probable and reasonable influence of the facts upon the party to whom the communication is due, in forming his estimate of the disadvantages of the proposed contract, or in making his inquiries.

Sec. 32. Each party to a contract of insurance is bound to know all the general causes which are open to his inquiry, equally with that of the other, and which may affect the political or material perils contemplated; and all general usages of trade.

Sec. 33. The right to information of material facts may be waived, either by the terms of the insurance or by neglect to make inquiry as to such facts, where they are distinctly implied in other facts of which information is communicated.

Sec. 34. Information of the nature or amount of the interest of one insured need not be communicated unless in answer to an inquiry, except as prescribed by section fifty-one.

Sec. 35. Neither party to a contract of insurance is bound to communicate, even upon inquiry, information of his own judgment upon the matters in question.

Title 5
REPRESENTATION

Sec. 36. A representation may be oral or written.

Sec. 37. A representation may be made at the time of, or before, issuance of the policy.

Sec. 38. The language of a representation is to be interpreted by the same rules as the language of contracts in general.

Sec. 39. A representation as to the future is to be deemed a promise, unless it appears that it was merely a statement of belief or expectation.

Sec. 40. A representation cannot qualify an express provision in a contract of insurance, but it may qualify an implied warranty.

Sec. 41. A representation may be altered or withdrawn before the insurance is effected, but not afterwards.

Sec. 42. A representation must be presumed to refer to the date on which the contract goes into effect.

Sec. 43. When a person insured has no personal knowledge of a fact, he may nevertheless repeat information which he has upon the subject, and which he believes to be true, with the explanation that he does so on the information of others; or he may submit the information, in its whole extent, to the insurer; and in neither case is he responsible for its truth, unless it proceeds from an agent of the insured, whose duty it is to give the information.

Sec. 44. A representation is to be deemed false when the facts fail to correspond with its assertions or stipulations.

Sec. 45. If a representation is false in a material point, whether affirmative or promissory, the injured party is entitled to rescind the contract from the time when the representation becomes false. The right to rescind granted by this Code to the insurer is waived by the acceptance of premium payments despite knowledge of the ground for rescission. (As amended by Batasang Pambansa Blg. 874).

Sec. 46. The materiality of a representation is determined by the same rules as the materiality of a concealment.

Sec. 47. The provisions of this chapter apply as well to a modification of a contract of insurance as to its original formation.

Sec. 48. Whenever a right to rescind a contract of insurance is given to the insurer by any provision of this chapter, such right must be exercised previous to the commencement of an action on the contract.

After a policy of life insurance made payable on the death of the insured shall have been in force during the lifetime of the insured for a period of two years from the date of its issue or of its last reinstatement, the insurer cannot prove that the policy is void ab initio or is rescindible by reason of the fraudulent concealment or misrepresentation of the insured or his agent.

Title 6
THE POLICY

Sec. 49. The written instrument in which a contract of insurance is set forth, is called a policy of insurance.

Sec. 50. The policy shall be in printed form which may contain blank spaces; and any word, phrase, clause, mark, sign, symbol, signature, number, or word necessary to complete the contract of insurance shall be written on the blank spaces provided therein.

Any rider, clause, warranty or endorsement purporting to be part of the contract of insurance and which is pasted or attached to said policy is not binding on the insured, unless the descriptive title or name of the rider, clause, warranty or endorsement is also mentioned and written on the blank spaces provided in the policy.

Unless applied for by the insured or owner, any rider, clause, warranty or endorsement issued after the original policy shall be countersigned by the insured or owner, which countersignature shall be taken as his agreement to the contents of such rider, clause, warranty or endorsement.

Group insurance and group annuity policies, however, may be typewritten and need not be in printed form.

Sec. 51. A policy of insurance must specify:

      (a) The parties between whom the contract is made;

      (b) The amount to be insured except in the cases of open or running policies;

      (c) The premium, or if the insurance is of a character where the exact premium is only determinable upon the termination of the contract, a statement of the basis and rates upon which the final premium is to be determined;

      (d) The property or life insured;

      (e) The interest of the insured in property insured, if he is not the absolute owner thereof;

      (f) The risks insured against; and

      (g) The period during which the insurance is to continue.

Sec. 52. Cover notes may be issued to bind insurance temporarily pending the issuance of the policy.  Within sixty days after the issue of the cover note, a policy shall be issued in lieu thereof, including within its terms the identical insurance bound under the cover note and the premium therefor.

Cover notes may be extended or renewed beyond such sixty days with the written approval of the Commissioner if he determines that such extension is not contrary to and is not for the purpose of violating any provisions of this Code.  The Commissioner may promulgate rules and regulations governing such extensions for the purpose of preventing such violations and may by such rules and regulations dispense with the requirement of written approval by him in the case of extension in compliance with such rules and regulations.

Sec. 53. The insurance proceeds shall be applied exclusively to the proper interest of the person in whose name or for whose benefit it is made unless otherwise specified in the policy.

Sec. 54. When an insurance contract is executed with an agent or trustee as the insured, the fact that his principal or beneficiary is the real party in interest may be indicated by describing the insured as agent or trustee, or by other general words in the policy.

Sec. 55. To render an insurance effected by one partner or part-owner, applicable to the interest of his co-partners or other part-owners, it is necessary that the terms of the policy should be such as are applicable to the joint or common interest.

Sec. 56. When the description of the insured in a policy is so general that it may comprehend any person or any class of persons, only he who can show that it was intended to include him can claim the benefit of the policy.

Sec. 57. A policy may be so framed that it will inure to the benefit of whomsoever, during the continuance of the risk, may become the owner of the interest insured.

Sec. 58. The mere transfer of a thing insured does not transfer the policy, but suspends it until the same person becomes the owner of both the policy and the thing insured.

Sec. 59. A policy is either open, valued or running.

Sec. 60. An open policy is one in which the value of the thing insured is not agreed upon, but is left to be ascertained in case of loss.

Sec. 61. A valued policy is one which expresses on its face an agreement that the thing insured shall be valued at a specific sum.

Sec. 62. A running policy is one which contemplates successive insurances, and which provides that the object of the policy may be from time to time defined, especially as to the subjects of insurance, by additional statements or indorsements.

Sec. 63. A condition, stipulation, or agreement in any policy of insurance, limiting the time for commencing an action thereunder to a period of less than one year from the time when the cause of action accrues, is void.

Sec. 64. No policy of insurance other than life shall be cancelled by the insurer except upon prior notice thereof to the insured, and no notice of cancellation shall be effective unless it is based on the occurrence, after the effective date of the policy, of one or more of the following:

      (a) non-payment of premium;

      (b) conviction of a crime arising out of acts increasing the hazard insured against;

      (c) discovery of fraud or material misrepresentation;

      (d) discovery of willful or reckless acts or omissions increasing the hazard insured against;

      (e) physical changes in the property insured which result in the property becoming uninsurable; or

      (f) a determination by the Commissioner that the continuation of the policy would violate or would place the insurer in violation of this Code.

Sec. 65. All notices of cancellation mentioned in the preceding section shall be in writing, mailed or delivered to the named insured at the address shown in the policy, and shall state (a) which of the grounds set forth in section sixty-four is relied upon and (b) that, upon written request of the named insured, the insurer will furnish the facts on which the cancellation is based.

Sec. 66. In case of insurance other than life, unless the insurer at least forty-five days in advance of the end of the policy period mails or delivers to the named insured at the address shown in the policy notice of its intention not to renew the policy or to condition its renewal upon reduction of limits or elimination of coverages, the named insured shall be entitled to renew the policy upon payment of the premium due on the effective date of the renewal.  Any policy written for a term of less than one year shall be considered as if written for a term of one year.  Any policy written for a term longer than one year or any policy with no fixed expiration date shall be considered as if written for successive policy periods or terms of one year.

Title 7
WARRANTIES

Sec. 67. A warranty is either expressed or implied.

Sec. 68. A warranty may relate to the past, the present, the future, or to any or all of these.

Sec. 69. No particular form of words is necessary to create a warranty.

Sec. 70. Without prejudice to section fifty-one, every express warranty, made at or before the execution of a policy, must be contained in the policy itself, or in another instrument signed by the insured and referred to in the policy as making a part of it.

Sec. 71. A statement in a policy of matter relating to the person or thing insured, or to the risk, as a fact, is an express warranty thereof.

Sec. 72. A statement in a policy which imparts that it is intended to do or not to do a thing which materially affects the risk, is a warranty that such act or omission shall take place.

Sec. 73. When, before the time arrives for the performance of a warranty relating to the future, a loss insured against happens, or performance becomes unlawful at the place of the contract, or impossible, the omission to fulfill the warranty does not avoid the policy.

Sec. 74. The violation of a material warranty, or other material provision of a policy, on the part of either party thereto, entitles the other to rescind.

Sec. 75. A policy may declare that a violation of specified provisions thereof shall avoid it, otherwise the breach of an immaterial provision does not avoid the policy.

Sec. 76. A breach of warranty without fraud merely exonerates an insurer from the time that it occurs, or where it is broken in its inception, prevents the policy from attaching to the risk.

Title 8
PREMIUM

Sec. 77. An insurer is entitled to payment of the premium as soon as the thing insured is exposed to the peril insured against.  Notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary, no policy or contract of insurance issued by an insurance company is valid and binding unless and until the premium thereof has been paid, except in the case of a life or an industrial life policy whenever the grace period provision applies.

Sec. 78. An acknowledgment in a policy or contract of insurance or the receipt of premium is conclusive evidence of its payment, so far as to make the policy binding, notwithstanding any stipulation therein that it shall not be binding until the premium is actually paid.

Sec. 79. A person insured is entitled to a return of premium, as follows:

      (a) To the whole premium if no part of his interest in the thing insured be exposed to any of the perils insured against;

      (b) Where the insurance is made for a definite period of time and the insured surrenders his policy, to such portion of the premium as corresponds with the unexpired time, at a pro rata rate, unless a short period rate has been agreed upon and appears on the face of the policy, after deducting from the whole premium any claim for loss or damage under the policy which has previously accrued; Provided, That no holder of a life insurance policy may avail himself of the privileges of this paragraph without sufficient cause as otherwise provided by law.


Sec. 80. If a peril insured against has existed, and the insurer has been liable for any period, however short, the insured is not entitled to return of premiums, so far as that particular risk is concerned.

Sec. 81. A person insured is entitled to return of the premium when the contract is voidable, on account of fraud or misrepresentation of the insurer, or of his agent, or on account of facts, the existence of which the insured was ignorant without his fault; or when by any default of the insured other than actual fraud, the insurer never incurred any liability under the policy.

Sec. 82. In case of an over-insurance by several insurers, the insured is entitled to a ratable return of the premium, proportioned to the amount by which the aggregate sum insured in all the policies exceeds the insurable value of the thing at risk.

Title 9
LOSS

Sec. 83. An agreement not to transfer the claim of the insured against the insurer after the loss has happened, is void if made before the loss except as otherwise provided in the case of life insurance.

Sec. 84. Unless otherwise provided by the policy, an insurer is liable for a loss of which a peril insured against was the proximate cause, although a peril not contemplated by the contract may have been a remote cause of the loss; but he is not liable for a loss which the peril insured against was only a remote cause.

Sec. 85. An insurer is liable where the thing insured is rescued from a peril insured against that would otherwise have caused a loss, if, in the course of such rescue, the thing is exposed to a peril not insured against, which permanently deprives the insured of its possession, in whole or in part; or where a loss is caused by efforts to rescue the thing insured from a peril insured against.

Sec. 86. Where a peril is especially excepted in a contract of insurance, a loss, which would not have occurred but for such peril, is thereby excepted although the immediate cause of the loss was a peril which was not excepted.

Sec. 87. An insurer is not liable for a loss caused by the willful act or through the connivance of the insured; but he is not exonerated by the negligence of the insured, or of the insurance agents or others.

Title 10
NOTICE OF LOSS

Sec. 88. In case of loss upon an insurance against fire, an insurer is exonerated, if notice thereof be not given to him by an insured, or some person entitled to the benefit of the insurance, without unnecessary delay.

Sec. 89. When a preliminary proof of loss is required by a policy, the insured is not bound to give such proof as would be necessary in a court of justice; but it is sufficient for him to give the best evidence which he has in his power at the time.

Sec. 90. All defects in a notice of loss, or in preliminary proof thereof, which the insured might remedy, and which the insurer omits to specify to him, without unnecessary delay, as grounds of objection, are waived.

Sec. 91. Delay in the presentation to an insurer of notice or proof of loss is waived if caused by any act of him, or if he omits to take objection promptly and specifically upon that ground.

Sec. 92. If the policy requires, by way of preliminary proof of loss, the certificate or testimony of a person other than the insured, it is sufficient for the insured to use reasonable diligence to procure it, and in case of the refusal of such person to give it, then to furnish reasonable evidence to the insurer that such refusal was not induced by any just grounds of disbelief in the facts necessary to be certified or testified.

Title 11
DOUBLE INSURANCE

Sec. 93. A double insurance exists where the same person is insured by several insurers separately in respect to the same subject and interest.

Sec. 94. Where the insured is overinsured by double insurance:

      (a) The insured, unless the policy otherwise provides, may claim payment from the insurers in such order as he may select, up to the amount for which the insurers are severally liable under their respective contracts;

      (b) Where the policy under which the insured claims is a valued policy, the insured must give credit as against the valuation for any sum received by him under any other policy without regard to the actual value of the subject matter insured;

      (c) Where the policy under which the insured claims is an unvalued policy he must give credit, as against the full insurable value, for any sum received by him under any policy;

      (d) Where the insured receives any sum in excess of the valuation in the case of valued policies, or of the insurable value in the case of unvalued policies, he must hold such sum in trust for the insurers, according to their right of contribution among themselves;

      (e) Each insurer is bound, as between himself and the other insurers, to contribute ratably to the loss in proportion to the amount for which he is liable under his contract.

Title 12
REINSURANCE

Sec. 95. A contract of reinsurance is one by which an insurer procures a third person to insure him against loss or liability by reason of such original insurance.

Sec. 96. Where an insurer obtains reinsurance, except under automatic reinsurance treaties, he must communicate all the representations of the original insured, and also all the knowledge and information he possesses, whether previously or subsequently acquired, which are material to the risk.

Sec. 97. A reinsurance is presumed to be a contract of indemnity against liability, and not merely against damage.

Sec. 98. The original insured has no interest in a contract of reinsurance.

Chapter II
CLASSES OF INSURANCE

Title I
MARINE INSURANCE

Sub-Title 1- A
 DEFINITION

Sec. 99. Marine Insurance includes:

      (1) Insurance against loss of or damage to:
       
            (a) Vessels, craft, aircraft, vehicles, goods, freights, cargoes, merchandise, effects, disbursements, profits, moneys, securities, choses in action, evidences of debts, valuable papers, bottomry, and respondentia interests and all other kinds of property and interests therein, in respect to, appertaining to or in connection with any and all risks or perils of navigation, transit or transportation, or while being assembled, packed, crated, baled, compressed or similarly prepared for shipment or while awaiting shipment, or during any delays, storage, transhipment, or reshipment incident thereto, including war risks, marine builder's risks, and all personal property floater risks;

            (b) Person or property in connection with or appertaining to a marine, inland marine, transit or transportation insurance, including liability for loss of or damage arising out of or in connection with the construction, repair, operation, maintenance or use of the subject matter of such insurance (but not including life insurance or surety bonds nor insurance against loss by reason of bodily injury to any person arising out of ownership, maintenance, or use of automobiles);

            (c) Precious stones, jewels, jewelry, precious metals, whether in course of transportation or otherwise;

            (d) Bridges, tunnels and other instrumentalities of transportation and communication (excluding buildings, their furniture and furnishings, fixed contents and supplies held in storage); piers, wharves, docks and slips, and other aids to navigation and transportation, including dry docks and marine railways, dams and appurtenant facilities for the control of waterways.
      (2) "Marine protection and indemnity insurance," meaning insurance against, or against legal liability of the insured for loss, damage, or expense incident to ownership, operation, chartering, maintenance, use, repair, or construction of any vessel, craft or instrumentality in use of ocean or inland waterways, including liability of the insured for personal injury, illness or death or for loss of or damage to the property of another person.

Sub-Title 1-B
INSURABLE INTEREST

Sec. 100. The owner of a ship has in all cases an insurable interest in it, even when it has been chartered by one who covenants to pay him its value in case of loss:  Provided, That in this case the insurer shall be liable for only that part of the loss which the insured cannot recover from the charterer.

Sec. 101. The insurable interest of the owner of the ship hypothecated by bottomry is only the excess of its value over the amount secured by bottomry.

Sec. 102. Freightage, in the sense of a policy of marine insurance, signifies all the benefits derived by the owner, either from the chartering of the ship or its employment for the carriage of his own goods or those of others.

Sec. 103. The owner of a ship has an insurable interest in expected freightage which according to the ordinary and probable course of things he would have earned but for the intervention of a peril insured against or other peril incident to the voyage.

Sec. 104. The interest mentioned in the last section exists, in case of a charter party, when the ship has broken ground on the chartered voyage.  If a price is to be paid for the carriage of goods it exists when they are actually on board, or there is some contract for putting them on board, and both ship and goods are ready for the specified voyage.

Sec. 105. One who has an interest in the thing from which profits are expected to proceed has an insurable interest in the profits.

Sec. 106. The charterer of a ship has an insurable interest in it, to the extent that he is liable to be damnified by its loss.

Sub-Title 1-C
CONCEALMENT

Sec. 107. In marine insurance each party is bound to communicate, in addition to what is required by section twenty-eight, all the information which he possesses, material to the risk, except such as is mentioned in Section thirty, and to state the exact and whole truth in relation to all matters that he represents, or upon inquiry discloses or assumes to disclose.

Sec. 108. In marine insurance, information of the belief or expectation of a third person, in reference to a material fact, is material.

Sec. 109. A person insured by a contract of marine insurance is presumed to have knowledge, at the time of insuring, of a prior loss, if the information might possibly have reached him in the usual mode of transmission and at the usual rate of communication.

Sec. 110. A concealment in a marine insurance, in respect to any of the following matters, does not vitiate the entire contract, but merely exonerates the insurer from a loss resulting from the risk concealed:

      (a) The national character of the insured;

      (b) The liability of the thing insured to capture and detention;

      (c) The liability to seizure from breach of foreign laws of trade;

      (d) The want of necessary documents;

      (e) The use of false and simulated papers.

Sub-Title 1-D
REPRESENTATION

Sec. 111. If a representation by a person insured by a contract of marine insurance, is intentionally false in any material respect, or in respect of any fact on which the character and nature of the risk depends, the insurer may rescind the entire contract.

Sec. 112. The eventual falsity of a representation as to expectation does not, in the absence of fraud, avoid a contract of marine insurance.

Sub-Title 1-E
IMPLIED WARRANTIES

Sec. 113. In every marine insurance upon a ship or freight, or freightage, or upon any thing which is the subject of marine insurance,  a warranty is implied that the ship is seaworthy.

Sec. 114. A ship is seaworthy when reasonably fit to perform the service and to encounter the ordinary perils of the voyage contemplated by the parties to the policy.

Sec. 115. An implied warranty of seaworthiness is complied with if the ship be seaworthy at the time of the of commencement of the risk, except in the following cases:

      (a) When the insurance is made for a specified length of time, the implied warranty is not complied with unless the ship be seaworthy at the commencement of every voyage it undertakes during that time;

      (b) When the insurance is upon the cargo which, by the terms of the policy, description of the voyage, or established custom of the trade, is to be transhipped at an intermediate port, the implied warranty is not complied with unless each vessel upon which the cargo is shipped, or transhipped, be seaworthy at the commencement of each particular voyage.

Sec. 116. A warranty of seaworthiness extends not only to the condition of the structure of the ship itself, but requires that it be properly laden, and provided with a competent master, a sufficient number of competent officers and seamen, and the requisite appurtenances and equipment, such as ballasts, cables and anchors, cordage and sails, food, water, fuel and lights, and other necessary or proper stores and implements for the voyage.

Sec. 117. Where different portions of the voyage contemplated by a policy differ in respect to the things requisite to make the ship seaworthy therefor, a warranty of seaworthiness is complied with if, at the commencement of each portion, the ship is seaworthy with reference to that portion.

Sec. 118. When the ship becomes unseaworthy during the voyage to which an insurance relates, an unreasonable delay in repairing the defect exonerates the insurer on ship or shipowner's interest from liability from any loss arising therefrom.

Sec. 119. A ship which is seaworthy for the purpose of an insurance upon the ship may, nevertheless, by reason of being unfitted to receive the cargo, be unseaworthy for the purpose of the insurance upon the cargo.

Sec. 120. Where the nationality or neutrality of a ship or cargo is expressly warranted, it is implied that the ship will carry the requisite documents to show such nationality or neutrality and that it will not carry any documents which cast reasonable suspicion thereon.

Sub-Title 1-F
THE VOYAGE AND DEVIATION

Sec. 121. When the voyage contemplated by a marine insurance policy is described by the places of beginning and ending, the voyage insured in one which conforms to the course of sailing fixed by mercantile usage between those places.

Sec. 122. If the course of sailing is not fixed by mercantile usage, the voyage insured by a marine insurance policy is that way between the places specified, which to a master of ordinary skill and discretion, would mean the most natural, direct and advantageous.

Sec. 123. Deviation is a departure from the course of the voyage insured, mentioned in the last two sections, or an unreasonable delay in pursuing the voyage or the commencement of an entirely different voyage.

Sec. 124. A deviation is proper:

      (a) When caused by circumstances over which neither the master nor the owner of the ship has any control;

      (b) When necessary to comply with a warranty, or to avoid a peril, whether or not the peril is insured against;

      (c) When made in good faith, and upon reasonable grounds of belief in its necessity to avoid a peril; or

      (d) When made in good faith, for the purpose of saving human life or relieving another vessel in distress.

Sec. 125. Every deviation not specified in the last section is improper.

Sec. 126. An insurer is not liable for any loss happening to the thing insured subsequent to an improper deviation.

Sub-Title 1-G
LOSS

Sec. 127. A loss may be either total or partial.

Sec. 128. Every loss which is not total is partial.

Sec. 129. A total loss may be either actual or constructive.

Sec. 130. An actual total loss is cause by:

      (a) A total destruction of the thing insured;

      (b) The irretrievable loss of the thing by sinking, or by being broken up;

      (c) Any damage to the thing which renders it valueless to the owner for the purpose for which he held it; or

      (d) Any other event which effectively deprives the owner of the possession, at the port of destination, of the thing insured.

Sec. 131. A constructive total loss is one which gives to a person insured a right to abandon, under Section one hundred thirty-nine.

Sec. 132. An actual loss may be presumed from the continued absence of a ship without being heard of. The length of time which is sufficient to raise this presumption depends on the circumstances of the case.

Sec. 133. When a ship is prevented, at an intermediate port, from completing the voyage, by the perils insured against, the liability of a marine insurer on the cargo continues after they are thus reshipped.
Nothing in this section shall prevent an insurer from requiring an additional premium if the hazard be increased by this extension of liability.

Sec. 134. In addition to the liability mentioned in the last section, a marine insurer is bound for damages, expenses of discharging, storage, reshipment, extra freightage, and all other expenses incurred in saving cargo reshipped pursuant to the last section, up to the amount insured.
Nothing in this or in the preceding section shall render a marine insurer liable for any amount in excess of the insured value or, if there be none, of the insurable value.

Sec. 135. Upon an actual total loss, a person insured is entitled to payment without notice of abandonment.

Sec. 136. Where it has been agreed that an insurance upon a particular thing, or class of things, shall be free from particular average, a marine insurer is not liable for any particular average loss not depriving the insured of the possession, at the port of destination, of the whole of such thing, or class of things, even though it becomes entirely worthless; but such insurer is liable for his proportion of all general average loss assessed upon the thing insured.

Sec. 137. An insurance confined in terms to an actual loss does not cover a constructive total loss, but covers any loss, which necessarily results in depriving the insured of the possession, at the port of destination, of the entire thing insured.

Sub-Title 1-H
ABANDONMENT

Sec. 138. Abandonment, in marine insurance, is the act of the insured by which, after a constructive total loss, he declares the relinquishment to the insurer of his interest in the thing insured.

Sec. 139. A person insured by a contract of marine insurance may abandon the thing insured, or any particular portion thereof separately valued by the policy, or otherwise separately insured, and recover for a total loss thereof, when the cause of the loss is a peril insured against:

      (a) If more than three-fourths thereof in value is actually lost, or would have to be expended to recover it from the peril;

      (b) If it is injured to such an extent as to reduce its value more than three-fourths;

      (c) If the thing insured is a ship, and the contemplated voyage cannot be lawfully performed without incurring either an expense to the insured of more than three-fourths the value of the thing abandoned or a risk which a prudent man would not take under the circumstances; or

      (d) If the thing insured, being cargo or freightage, and the voyage cannot be performed, nor another ship procured by the master, within a reasonable time and with reasonable diligence, to forward the cargo, without incurring the like expense or risk mentioned in the preceding sub-paragraph. But freightage cannot in any case be abandoned unless the ship is also abandoned.

Sec. 140. An abandonment must be neither partial nor conditional.

Sec. 141. An abandonment must be made within a reasonable time after receipt of reliable information of the loss, but where the information is of a doubtful character, the insured is entitled to a reasonable time to make inquiry.

Sec. 142. Where the information upon which an abandonment has been made proves incorrect, or the thing insured was so far restored when the abandonment was made that there was then in fact no total loss, the abandonment becomes ineffectual.

Sec. 143. Abandonment is made by giving notice thereof to the insurer, which may be done orally, or in writing; Provided, That if the notice be done orally, a written notice of such abandonment shall be submitted within seven days from such oral notice.

Sec. 144. A notice of abandonment must be explicit, and must specify the particular cause of the abandonment, but need state only enough to show that there is probable cause therefor, and need not be accompanied with proof of interest or of loss.

Sec. 145. An abandonment can be sustained only upon the cause specified in the notice thereof.

Sec. 146. An abandonment is equivalent to a transfer by the insured of his interest to the insurer, with all the chances of recovery and indemnity.

Sec. 147. If a marine insurer pays for a loss as if it were an actual total loss, he is entitled to whatever may remain of the thing insured, or its proceeds or salvage, as if there had been a formal abandonment.

Sec. 148. Upon an abandonment, acts done in good faith by those who were agents of the insured in respect to the thing insured, subsequent to the loss, are at the risk of the insurer and for his benefit.

Sec. 149. Where notice of abandonment is properly given, the rights of the insured are not prejudiced by the fact that the insurer refuses to accept the abandonment.

Sec. 150. The acceptance of an abandonment may be either express or implied from the conduct of the insurer. The mere silence of the insurer for an unreasonable length of time after notice shall be construed as an acceptance.

Sec. 151. The acceptance of an abandonment, whether express or implied, is conclusive upon the parties, and admits the loss and the sufficiency of the abandonment.

Sec. 152. An abandonment once made and accepted is irrevocable, unless the ground upon which it was made proves to be unfounded.

Sec. 153. On an accepted abandonment of a ship, freightage earned previous to the loss belongs to the insurer of said freightage; but freightage subsequently earned belongs to the insurer of the ship.

Sec. 154. If an insurer refuses to accept a valid abandonment, he is liable as upon actual total loss, deducting from the amount any proceeds of the thing insured which may have come to the hands of the insured.

Sec. 155. If a person insured omits to abandon, he may nevertheless recover his actual loss.

Sub-Title 1-I
MEASURE OF INDEMNITY

Sec. 156. A valuation in a policy of marine insurance in conclusive between the parties thereto in the adjustment of either a partial or total loss, if the insured has some interest at risk, and there is no fraud on his part; except that when a thing has been hypothecated by bottomry or respondentia, before its insurance, and without the knowledge of the person actually procuring the insurance, he may show the real value. But a valuation fraudulent in fact, entitles the insurer to rescind the contract.

Sec. 157. A marine insurer is liable upon a partial loss, only for such proportion of the amount insured by him as the loss bears to the value of the whole interest of the insured in the property insured.

Sec. 158. Where profits are separately insured in a contract of marine insurance, the insured is entitled to recover, in case of loss, a proportion of such profits equivalent to the proportion which the value of the property lost bears to the value of the whole.

Sec. 159. In case of a valued policy of marine insurance on freightage or cargo, if a part only of the subject is exposed to the risk, the evaluation applies only in proportion to such part.

Sec. 160. When profits are valued and insured by a contract of marine insurance, a loss of them is conclusively presumed from a loss of the property out of which they are expected to arise, and the valuation fixes their amount.

Sec. 161. In estimating a loss under an open policy of marine insurance the following rules are to be observed:

      (a) The value of a ship is its value at the beginning of the risk, including all articles or charges which add to its permanent value or which are necessary to prepare it for the voyage insured;

      (b) The value of the cargo is its actual cost to the insured, when laden on board, or where the cost cannot be ascertained, its market value at the time and place of lading, adding the charges incurred in purchasing and placing it on board, but without reference to any loss incurred in raising money for its purchase, or to any drawback on its exportation, or to the fluctuation of the market at the port of destination, or to expenses incurred on the way or on arrival;

      (c) The value of freightage is the gross freightage, exclusive of primage, without reference to the cost of earning it; and

      (d) The cost of insurance is in each case to be added to the value thus estimated.

Sec. 162. If cargo insured against partial loss arrives at the port of destination in a damaged condition, the loss of the insured is deemed to be the same proportion of the value which the market price at that port, of the thing so damaged, bears to the market price it would have brought if sound.

Sec. 163. A marine insurer is liable for all the expenses attendant upon a loss which forces the ship into port to be repaired; and where it is stipulated in the policy that the insured shall labor for the recovery of the property, the insurer is liable for the expense incurred thereby, such expense, in either case, being in addition to a total loss, if that afterwards occurs.

Sec. 164. A marine insurer is liable for a loss falling upon the insured, through a contribution in respect to the thing insured, required to be made by him towards a general average loss called for by a peril insured against; provided, that the liability of the insurer shall be limited to the proportion of contribution attaching to his policy value where this is less than the contributing value of the thing insured.

Sec. 165. When a person insured by a contract of marine insurance has a demand against others for contribution, he may claim the whole loss from the insurer, subrogating him to his own right to contribution. But no such claim can be made upon the insurer after the separation of the interests liable to the contribution, nor when the insured, having the right and opportunity to enforce the contribution from others, has neglected or waived the exercise of that right.

Sec. 166. In the case of a partial loss of ship or its equipment, the old materials are to be applied towards payment for the new. Unless otherwise stipulated in the policy, a marine insurer is liable for only two-thirds of the remaining cost of repairs after such deduction, except that anchors must be paid in full.

Title 2
FIRE INSURANCE

Sec. 167. As used in this Code, the term "fire insurance" shall include insurance against loss by fire, lightning, windstorm, tornado or earthquake and other allied risks, when such risks are covered by extension to fire insurance policies or under separate policies.

Sec. 168. An alteration in the use or condition of a thing insured from that to which it is limited by the policy made without the consent of the insurer, by means within the control of the insured, and increasing the risks, entitles an insurer to rescind a contract of fire insurance.

Sec. 169. An alteration in the use or condition of a thing insured from that to which it is limited by the policy, which does not increase the risk, does not affect a contract of fire insurance.

Sec. 170. A contract of fire insurance is not affected by any act of the insured subsequent to the execution of the policy, which does not violate its provisions, even though it increases the risk and is the cause of the loss.

Sec. 171. If there is no valuation in the policy, the measure of indemnity in an insurance against fire is the expense it would be to the insured at the time of the commencement of the fire to replace the thing lost or injured in the condition in which at the time of the injury; but if there is a valuation in a policy of fire insurance, the effect shall be the same as in a policy of marine insurance.

Sec. 172. Whenever the insured desires to have a valuation named in his policy, insuring any building or structure against fire, he may require such building or structure to be examined by an independent appraiser and the value of the insured's interest therein may then be fixed as between the insurer and the insured. The cost of such examination shall be paid for by the insured. A clause shall be inserted in such policy stating substantially that the value of the insured's interest in such building or structure has been thus fixed. In the absence of any change increasing the risk without the consent of the insurer or of fraud on the part of the insured, then in case of a total loss under such policy, the whole amount so insured upon the insured's interest in such building or structure, as stated in the policy upon which the insurers have received a premium, shall be paid, and in case of a partial loss the full amount of the partial loss shall be so paid, and in case there are two or more policies covering the insured's interest therein, each policy shall contribute pro rata to the payment of such whole or partial loss. But in no case shall the insurer be required to pay more than the amount thus stated in such policy. This section shall not prevent the parties from stipulating in such policies concerning the repairing, rebuilding or replacing of buildings or structures wholly or partially damaged or destroyed.

Sec. 173. No policy of fire insurance shall be pledged, hypothecated, or transferred to any person, firm or company who acts as agent for or otherwise represents the issuing company, and any such pledge, hypothecation, or transfer hereafter made shall be void and of no effect insofar as it may affect other creditors of the insured.

Title 3
CASUALTY INSURANCE

Sec. 174. Casualty insurance is insurance covering loss or liability arising from accident or mishap, excluding certain types of loss which by law or custom are considered as falling exclusively within the scope of other types of insurance such as fire or marine. It includes, but is not limited to, employer's liability insurance, motor vehicle liability insurance, plate glassinsurance, burglary and theft insurance, personal accident and health insurance as written by non-life insurance companies, and other substantially similar kinds of insurance.

Title 4
SURETYSHIP

Sec. 175. A contract of suretyship is an agreement whereby a party called the surety guarantees the performance by another party called the principal or obligor of an obligation or undertaking in favor of a third party called the obligee. It includes official recognizances, stipulations, bonds or undertakings issued by any company by virtue of and under the provisions of Act No. 536, as amended by Act No. 2206.

Sec. 176. The liability of the surety or sureties shall be joint and several with the obligor and shall be limited to the amount of the bond. It is determined strictly by the terms of the contract of suretyship in relation to the principal contract between the obligor and the obligee. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 177. The surety is entitled to payment of the premium as soon as the contract of suretyship or bond is perfected and delivered to the obligor. No contract of suretyship or bonding shall be valid and binding unless and until the premium therefor has been paid, except where the obligee has accepted the bond, in which case the bond becomes valid and enforceable irrespective of whether or not the premium has been paid by the obligor to the surety: Provided, That if the contract of suretyship or bond is not accepted by, or filed with the obligee, the surety shall collect only reasonable amount, not exceeding fifty per centum of the premium due thereon as service fee plus the cost of stamps or other taxes imposed for the issuance of the contract or bond: Provided, however, That if the non-acceptance of the bond be due to the fault or negligence of the surety, no such service fee, stamps or taxes shall be collected.

In the case of a continuing bond, the obligor shall pay the subsequent annual premium as it falls due until the contract of suretyship is cancelled by the obligee or by the Commissioner or by a court of competent jurisdiction, as the case may be.

Sec. 178. Pertinent provisions of the Civil Code of the Philippines shall be applied in a suppletory character whenever necessary in interpreting the provisions of a contract of suretyship.

Title 5
LIFE INSURANCE

Sec. 179. Life insurance is insurance on human lives and insurance appertaining thereto or connected therewith.

Sec. 180. An insurance upon life may be made payable on the death of the person, or on his surviving a specified period, or otherwise contingently on the continuance or cessation of life.

Every contract or pledge for the payment of endowments or annuities shall be considered a life insurance contract for purpose of this Code.

In the absence of a judicial guardian, the father, or in the latter's absence or incapacity, the mother, or any minor, who is an insured or a beneficiary under a contract of life, health or accident insurance, may exercise, in behalf of said minor, any right under the policy, without necessity of court authority or the giving of a bond, where the interest of the minor in the particular act involved does not exceed twenty thousand pesos. Such right may include, but shall not be limited to, obtaining a policy loan, surrendering the policy, receiving the proceeds of the policy, and giving the minor's consent to any transaction on the policy.

Sec. 180-A. The insurer in a life insurance contract shall be liable in case of suicides only when it is committed after the policy has been in force for a period of two years from the date of its issue or of its last reinstatement, unless the policy provides  a shorter period: Provided, however, That suicide committed in the state of insanity shall be compensable regardless of the date of commission. (As amended  by Batasang Pambansa Blg. 874).

Sec. 181. A policy of insurance upon life or health may pass by transfer, will or succession to any person, whether he has an insurable interest or not, and such person may recover upon it whatever the insured might have recovered.

Sec. 182. Notice to an insurer of a transfer or bequest thereof is not necessary to preserve the validity of a policy of insurance upon life or health, unless thereby expressly required.

Sec. 183. Unless the interest of a person insured is susceptible of exact pecuniary measurement, the measure of indemnity under a policy of insurance upon life or health is the sum fixed in the policy.

Chapter III
THE BUSINESS OF INSURANCE

Title 1
INSURANCE COMPANIES, ORGANIZATION,
CAPITALIZATION AND AUTHORIZATION

Sec. 184. For purposes of this Code, the term "insurer" or "insurance company" shall include all individuals, partnerships, associations, or corporations, including government-owned or controlled corporations or entities, engaged as principals in the insurance business, excepting mutual benefit associations. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms shall also include professional reinsurers defined in section two hundred eighty. "Domestic company" shall include companies formed, organized or existing under the laws of the Philippines. "Foreign company" when used without limitation shall include companies formed, organized, or existing under any laws other than those of the Philippines.

Sec. 185. Corporations formed or organized to save any person or persons or other corporations harmless from loss, damage, or liability arising from any unknown or future or contingent event, or to indemnify or to compensate any person or persons or other corporations for any such loss, damage, or liability, or to guarantee the performance of or compliance with contractual obligations or the payment of debt of others shall be known as "insurance corporations".

The provisions of the Corporation Law shall apply to all insurance corporations now or hereafter engaged in business in the Philippines insofar as they do not conflict with the provisions of this chapter.

Sec. 186. No person, partnership, or association of persons shall transact any insurance business in the Philippines except as agent of a person or corporation authorized to do the business of insurance in the Philippines, unless possessed of the capital and assets required of an insurance corporation doing the same kind of business in the Philippines and invested in the same manner; nor unless the Commissioner shall have granted to him or them a certificate to the effect that he or they have complied with all the provisions of law which an insurance corporation doing business in the Philippines is required to observe.

Every person, partnership, or association receiving any such certificate of authority shall be subject to the insurance laws of the Philippines and to the jurisdiction and supervision of the Commissioner in the same manner as if an insurance corporation authorized by the laws of the Philippines to engage in the business of insurance specified in the certificate.

Sec. 187. No insurance company shall transact any insurance business in the Philippines until after it shall have obtained a certificate of authority for that purpose from the Commissioner upon application therefor and payment by the company concerned of the fees hereinafter prescribed.

The Commissioner may refuse to issue a certificate of authority to any insurance company if, in his judgment, such refusal will best promote the interest of the people of this country. No such certificate of authority shall be granted to any such company until the Commissioner shall have satisfied himself by such examination as he may make and such evidence as he may require that such company is qualified by the laws of the Philippines to transact business therein, that the grant of such authority appears to be justified in the light of economic requirements, and that the direction and administration, as well as the integrity and responsibility of the organizers and administrators, the financial organization and the amount of capital, notwithstanding the provisions of section one hundred eighty-eight, reasonably assure the safety of the interests of the policyholders and the public.

In order to maintain the quality of the management of the insurance companies and afford better protection to policyholders and the public in general, any person of good moral character, unquestioned integrity and recognized competence may be elected or appointed director or officer of insurance companies. The Commissioner shall prescribe the qualifications of the executive officers and other key officials of insurance companies for purposes of this section.

No person shall concurrently be a director and/or officer of an insurance company and an adjustment company.

Incumbent directors and/or officers affected by the above provisions are hereby allowed to hold on to their positions until the end of their terms or two years from the effectivity of this decree, whichever is shorter.

Before issuing such certificate of authority, the Commissioner must be satisfied that the name of the company is not that of any other known company transacting a similar business in the Philippines, or a name so similar as to be calculated to mislead the public.

Such certificate of authority shall expire on the last day of June of each year and shall be renewed annually if the company is continuing to comply with the provisions of this Code or the circulars, instructions, rulings or decisions of the Commissioner.  Every company receiving any such certificates of authority shall be subject to the provisions of this Code and other related laws and to the jurisdiction and supervision of the Commissioner.

No insurance company may be authorized to transact in the Philippines the business of life and non-life insurance concurrently unless specifically authorized to do so: Provided, That the terms "life" and "non-life" insurance shall be deemed to include health, accident and disability insurance.

No insurance company shall have equity in an adjustment company and neither shall an adjustment company have an equity in an insurance company.

Insurance companies and adjustment companies presently affected by the above provision shall have two years from the effectivity of this Decree within which to divest of their stockholdings. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 188. Except as provided in section two hundred eighty-one, no domestic insurance company shall, in a stock corporation, engage in business in the Philippines unless possessed of a paid-up capital stock equal to at least five million pesos: Provided, That a domestic insurance company already doing business in the Philippines with a paid-up capital stock which is less than five million pesos shall have a paid-up capital stock of at least three million pesos by December thirty-one, nineteen hundred seventy-eight, four million pesos by December thirty-one, nineteen hundred seventy-nine and five million pesos by December thirty-one, nineteen hundred eighty: Provided, further, that the Secretary of Finance may, upon recommendation of the Insurance Commissioner, increase such minimum paid-up capital stock requirement, under such terms and conditions as he may impose, to an amount which, in his opinion, would reasonably assure the safety of the interests of the policyholders and the public.

The Commissioner may, as a pre-licensing requirement of a new insurance company, in addition to the paid-up capital stock, require the stockholders to pay in cash to the company in proportion to their subscription interests a contributed surplus fund of not less than one million pesos, in the case of a life insurance company, or not less than five hundred thousand pesos, in the case of an insurance company other than life. He may also require such company to submit to him a business plan showing the company's estimated receipts and disbursements, as well as the basis therefor, for the next succeeding three years.

If organized as a  mutual company, in lieu of such capital stock, it must have available cash assets of at least five million pesos above all liabilities for losses reported, expenses, taxes, legal reserve, and reinsurance of all outstanding risks, and the contributed surplus fund equal to the amounts required of stock corporations. A stock insurance company doing business in the Philippines may, subject to the pertinent law and regulations which now are of hereafter may be in force, alter its organization and transform itself into a mutual insurance company. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 189. Every company must, before engaging in the business of insurance in the Philippines, file with the Commissioner the following:

      (a) A certified copy of the last annual statement or a verified financial statement exhibiting the condition and affairs of such company;

      (b) If incorporated under the laws of the Philippines, a copy of the articles of incorporation and by-laws, and any amendments to either, certified by the Securities and Exchange Commission to be a  copy of that which is filed in its Office;

      (c) If incorporated under any laws other than those of the Philippines, a certificate from the Securities and Exchange Commission showing that it is duly registered in the mercantile registry of that Commission in accordance with the Corporation Law. A copy of the articles of incorporation and by-laws, and any amendments to either, if organized or formed under any law requiring such to be filed, duly certified by the officer having the custody of same, or if not so organized, a copy of the law, charter or deed of settlement under which the deed of organization is made, duly certified by the proper custodian thereof, or proved by affidavit to be a copy; also, a certificate under the hand and seal of the proper officer of such state or country having supervision of insurance business therein, if any there be, that such corporation or company is organized under the laws of such state or country, with the amount of capital stock or assets and legal reserve required by this Code;

      (d) If not incorporated and of foreign domicile, aside from the certificate mentioned in paragraph (c) of this section, a certificate setting forth the nature and character of the business, the location of the principal office, the name of the individual or names of the persons composing the partnership or association, the amount of actual capital employed or to be employed therein and the names of all officers and persons by whom the business is or may be managed.

The certificate must be verified by the affidavit of the chief officer, secretary, agent, or manager of the company; and if there are any written articles of agreement of the company, a copy thereof must be accompany such certificate.

Sec. 190. The Commissioner must require as a condition precedent to the transaction of insurance business in the Philippines by any foreign insurance company, that such company file in his office a written power of attorney designating some person who shall be a resident of the Philippines as its general agent, on whom any notice provided by law or by any insurance policy, proof of loss, summons and other legal processes may be served in all actions or other legal proceedings against such company, and consenting that service upon such general agent shall be admitted and held as valid as if served upon the foreign company at its home office. Any such foreign company shall, as further condition precedent to the transaction of insurance business in the Philippines, make and file with the Commissioner an agreement or stipulation, executed by the proper authorities of said company in form and substance as follows:

      "The (name of company) does hereby stipulate and agree in consideration of the permission granted by the Insurance Commissioner to transact business in the Philippines, that if at any time said company shall leave the Philippines, or cease to transact business therein, or shall be without any agent in the Philippines on whom any notice, proof of loss, summons, or legal process may be served, then in any action or proceeding arising out any business or transaction which occurred in the Philippines, service of any notice provided by law, or insurance policy, proof of loss, summons, or other legal process may be made upon the Insurance Commissioner shall have the same force and effect as if made upon the company."

Whenever such service of notice, proof of loss, summons, or other legal process shall be made upon the Commission, he must, within ten days thereafter, transmit by mail, postage paid, a copy of such notice, proof of loss, summons, or other legal process to the company at its home or principal office. The sending of such copy by the Commissioner shall be a necessary part of the service of the notice, proof of loss, or other legal process.

Sec. 191. No insurance company organized or existing under the government or laws other than those of the Philippines shall engage in business in the Philippines unless possessed of paid-up unimpaired capital or assets and reserve not less than that herein required of domestic insurance companies, nor until it shall have deposited with the Commissioner for the benefit and security of the policyholders and creditors of such company in the Philippines, securities satisfactory to the Commissioner consisting of good securities of the Philippines, including new issues of stock of "registered enterprises", as this term is defined in Republic Act No. 5186, otherwise known as the Investment Incentives Act, as amended, to the actual market value of not less than the minimum paid-up capital required of domestic insurance companies: Provided, That at least fifty per centum of such securities shall consist of bonds or other evidences of debt of the Government of the Philippines, its political subdivisions and instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, including the Central Bank. The total investment of a foreign insurance company in any registered enterprise shall not exceed twenty per centum of the net worth of said foreign insurance company nor twenty per centum of the capital of the registered enterprise, unless previously authorized in writing by the Commissioner.

For purposes of this Code, the net worth of a foreign insurance company shall refer only to its net worth in the Philippines.

Sec. 192. The Commissioner shall hold the securities, deposited as aforesaid, for the benefit and security of all the policyholders of the company depositing the same, but shall as long as the company is solvent, permit the company to collect the interest or dividends on the securities so deposited, and, from time to time, with his assent, to withdraw any of such securities, upon depositing with said Commissioner other like securities, the market value of which shall be equal to the market value of such as may be withdrawn. In the event of any company ceasing to do business in the Philippines the securities deposited as aforesaid shall be returned upon the company's making application therefor and proving to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that it has no further  liability under any of its policies in the Philippines.

Sec. 193. Every foreign company doing business in the Philippines shall set aside an amount corresponding to the legal reserves of the policies written in the Philippines and invest and keep the same therein in accordance with the provisions of this section. The legal reserve therein required to be set aside shall be invested only in the classes of the Philippine securities described in section two hundred: Provided, however, That no investment in stocks or bonds of any single entity shall, in the aggregate exceed twenty per centum of the net worth of the investing company or twenty per centum of the capital of the issuing company, whichever is the lesser unless otherwise approved in writing by the Commissioner. The securities purchased and kept in the Philippines under this section, shall not be sent out of the territorial jurisdiction of the Philippines without the written consent of the Commissioner.

Title 2
MARGIN OF INSOLVENCY

Sec. 194. An insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall at all times maintain a margin of solvency which shall be an excess of the value of its admitted assets exclusive of its paid-up capital, in the case of a domestic company, or an excess of the value of its admitted assets in the Philippines, exclusive of its security deposits, in the case of a foreign company, over the amount of its liabilities, unearned premium and reinsurance reserves in the Philippines of at least two per mille of the total amount of its insurance in force as of the preceding calendar year on all policies, except term insurance, in the case of a life insurance company, or of at least ten per centum of the total amount of its net premium written during the preceding calendar year, in the case of a company other than a life insurance company: Provided, That in either case, such margin shall in no event be less than five hundred thousand pesos: and Provided, further, That the term "paid-up capital" shall not include contributed surplus and capital paid in excess of par value. Such assets, liabilities and reserves shall exclude assets, liabilities and reserves included in separate accounts established in accordance with section two hundred thirty-seven. Whenever the aforementioned margin be found to be less than that herein required to be maintained, the Commissioner shall forthwith direct the company to make good any such deficiency by cash, to be contributed by all stockholders of record in proportion to their respective interest, and paid to the treasurer of the company, within fifteen days from receipt of the order: Provided, That the company in the interim shall not be permitted to take any new risk of any kind or character unless and until it make good any such deficiency: Provided, further, that a stockholder who aside from paying the contribution due from him, pays the contribution due from the another stockholder by reason of the failure or refusal of the latter to do so, shall have a lien on the certificates of stock of the insurance company concerned appearing in its books in the name of the defaulting stockholder on the date of default, as well as on any interests or dividends that have accrued or will accrue to the said certificates of stock, until the corresponding payment or reimbursement is made by the defaulting stockholder. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 195. No domestic insurance corporation shall declare or distribute any dividend on its outstanding stocks except from profits attested in a sworn statement to the Commissioner by the president or treasurer of the corporation to be remaining on hand after retaining unimpaired:

      (a) The entire paid-up capital stock;

      (b) The margin of solvency required by section one hundred ninety-four;

      (c) In the case of life insurance corporation, the legal reserve fund required by section two hundred eleven;

      (d) In the case of corporations other than life, the legal reserve fund required by section two hundred thirteen;

      (e) A sum sufficient to pay all net losses reported, or in the course of settlement, and all liabilities for expenses and taxes.

Any dividend declared or distributed under the preceding paragraph shall be reported to the Commissioner within thirty days after such declaration or distribution.

If the Commissioner finds that any such corporation has declared or distributed any such dividend in violation of this section, he may order such corporation to cease and desist from doing business until the amount of such dividend or the portion thereof in excess of the amount allowed under this section has been restored to said corporation.

Title 3
ASSETS

Sec. 196. In any determination of the financial condition of any insurance company doing business in the Philippines, there shall be allowed and admitted as assets only such assets owned by the insurance company concerned and which consist of:

      1. Cash in the possession of the insurance company or in transit under its control, and the true and duly verified balance of any deposit of such company in a financially sound commercial bank or trust company.

      2. Investments in securities, including money market instruments, and in real property acquired or held in accordance with and subject to the applicable provisions of this Code and the income realized therefrom or accrued thereon.

      3. Loans granted by the insurance company concerned to the extent of that portion thereof adequately secured by non-speculative assets with readily realizable values in accordance with and subject to the limitations imposed by applicable provisions of this Code.

      4. Policy loans and other policy assets and liens on policies, contracts or certificates of a life insurance company, in an amount not exceeding legal reserves and other policy liabilities carried on each individual life insurance policy, contract or certificate.

      5. The net amount of uncollected and deferred premiums and annuity considerations in the case of a life insurance company which carries the full mean tabular reserve liability.

      6. Reinsurance recoverable by the ceding insurer:
       
            (a) from an insurer authorized to transact business in this country, the full amount thereof; or

            (b) from an insurer not authorized in this country, in an amount not exceeding the liabilities carried by the ceding insurer for amounts withheld under a reinsurance treaty with such unauthorized insurer as security for the payment of obligations thereunder if such funds are held subject to withdrawal by, and under the control of, the ceding insurer. The Commissioner may prescribe the conditions under which a ceding insurer may be allowed credit, as an asset or as a deduction from loss and unearned premium reserves, for reinsurance recoverable from an insurer not authorized in this country but which presents satisfactory evidence that it meets the applicable standards of solvency required in this country.


      7. Funds withheld by a ceding insurer under a reinsurance treaty, provided reserves for unpaid losses and unearned premiums are adequately provided.

      8. Deposits or amounts recoverable from underwriting associations, syndicates and reinsurance funds, or from any suspended banking institution, to the extent deemed by the Commissioner to be available for the payment of losses and claims and values to be determined by him.

      9. Electronic data processing machines, as may be authorized by the Commissioner to be acquired by the insurance company concerned, the acquisition cost of which to be amortized in equal annual amounts within a period of five years from the date of acquisition thereof.

      10. Other assets, not inconsistent with the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 9 hereof, which are deemed by the Commissioner to be readily realizable and available for the payment of losses and claims at values to be determined by him.

Sec. 197. In addition to such assets as the Commissioner may from time to time determine to be non-admitted assets of insurance companies doing business in the Philippines, the following assets shall in no case be allowed as admitted assets of an insurance company doing business in the Philippines, in any determination of its financial condition:

      1. Goodwill, trade names, and other like intangible assets.

      2. Prepaid or deferred charges for expenses and commissions paid by such insurance company.

      3. Advances to officers (other than policy loans), which are not adequately secured and which are not previously authorized by the Commissioner, as well as advances to employees, agents, and other persons on mere personal security.

      4. Shares of stock of such insurance company, owned by it, or any equity therein as well as loans secured thereby, or any proportionate interest in such shares of stock through the ownership by such insurance company of an interest in another corporation or business unit.

      5. Furniture, furnishing, fixtures, safes, equipment, library, stationery, literature, and supplies.

      6. Items of bank credits representing checks, drafts or notes returned unpaid after the date of statement.

      7. The amount, if any, by which the aggregate value of investments as carried in the ledger assets of such insurance company exceeds the aggregate value thereof as determined in accordance with the provisions of this Code and/or the rules of the Commissioner.

All non-admitted assets and all other assets of doubtful value or character included as ledger or non-ledger assets in any statement submitted by an insurance company to the Commissioner, or in any insurance examiner's report to him, shall also be reported, to the extent of the value disallowed as deductions from the gross assets of such insurance company, except where the Commissioner permits a reserve to be carried among the liabilities of such insurance company in lieu of any such deduction.

Title 4
INVESTMENTS

Sec. 198. No insurance company shall loan any of its money or deposits to any person, corporation or association, except upon first mortgage or deeds of trust of unencumbered, improved or unimproved real estate, including condominiums, in cities and centers of population of municipalities in the Philippines when the amount of such loan is not in excess of seventy per centum of the market value of such real estate; or upon the security of first mortgages or deeds of trust of actually cultivated, improved and unencumbered agricultural lands in the Philippines when the amount of such loan is not in excess of forty per centum of the market value of such land; or upon the purchase money mortgages or like securities received by it upon the sale or exchange of real property acquired pursuant to sections two hundred and two hundred two; or upon bonds or other evidences of debt of the Government of the Philippines or its political subdivisions authorized by law to issue bonds, or upon bonds or other evidences of debt of government-owned or controlled corporations and instrumentalities including the Central Bank or upon obligations issued or guaranteed by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; or upon stocks, bonds or other evidences of debt as are specified in section two hundred.

A life insurance company, however, may lend to any of its policyholders upon the security of the value of its policy such sum as may be determined pursuant to the provisions of the policy.

Loans granted upon the security of real estate for a period longer than five years shall be amortized in monthly, quarterly, semi-annual or annual installments; Provided, That no such loans shall have a maturity in excess of twenty years.

The phrase "improved real estate" used above is hereby defined to mean land with permanent building or buildings erected or being erected thereon. Except as otherwise approved by the Commissioner, in case the building or buildings on land do not belong to the owner of the latter, no loan shall be granted on the security of the real estate in question unless both the owner of the building or buildings and the owner of the land sign the deed of mortgage, and unless the owner of the land is the Government of the Philippines or one of its political subdivisions, in which event the owner is not required to sign the deed of mortgage.

Sec. 199. No loan by any insurance company on the security of real estate shall be made unless the title to such real estate shall have first been registered in accordance with the existing Land Registration Act, or shall be a titulo real duly registered, or have been previously registered under the provisions of the existing Mortgage Law.

Sec. 200. (1) An insurance company may purchase, hold, own and convey such property, real and personal, as may have been mortgaged, pledged, or conveyed to it in good faith in trust for its benefit by reason of money loaned by it in pursuance of the regular business of the company, and such real or personal property as may have been purchased by it at sales under pledges, mortgages or deeds of trust for its benefit on account of money loaned by it; and such real and personal property as may have been conveyed to it by borrowers in satisfaction and discharge of loans made by the company to them: Provided, however, That any real estate purchased by an insurance company in payment or by reason of any loan made by it shall be sold by the company within twenty years after the title thereto has been vested in it.

(2) An insurance company may purchase, hold, own and convey real and personal property as follows:

      (a) The lot with building thereon in which the company conducts and carries on its business.

      (b) Bonds or other evidences of debt of the Government of the Philippines or its political subdivisions authorized by law to issue bonds at the reasonable market value thereof.

      (c) Bonds or other evidences of debt of the government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, including the Central Bank.

      (d) Bonds, debentures or other evidences of indebtedness of any solvent corporations or institution created or existing under the laws of the Philippines: Provided, however, That the issuing, assuming or guaranteeing entity or its predecessors shall not have defaulted in the payment of interest on any of its securities and that during each of any three including the last two of the five fiscal years next preceding the date of acquisition by such insurance company of such bonds, debentures, or other evidences of indebtedness, the net earnings of the issuing, assuming or guaranteeing institution available for its fixed charges, as hereinafter defined, shall have been not less than one and one-quarter times the total of its fixed charges for such year; and Provided, further, that no life insurance company shall invest in or loan upon the obligations of any one institution in the kinds permitted under this sub-section an amount in excess of twenty-five per centum of the total admitted assets of such insurer as of December thirty-first next preceding the date of such investment.

      As used in this sub-section the term "net earnings available for fixed charges" shall mean net income after deducting operating and maintenance expenses, taxes other than income taxes, depreciation and depletion; but excluding extraordinary non-recurring items of income or expense appearing in the regular financial statement of the issuing, assuming or guaranteeing institution. The term "fixed charges" shall include interest on funded and unfunded debt, amortization of debt discount, and rentals for leased properties.

      (e) Preferred or guaranteed stocks of any solvent corporation or institution created or existing under the laws of the Philippines: Provided, however, That the issuing, assuming or guaranteeing entity or its predecessors has paid regular dividends upon its preferred or guaranteed stocks for a period of at least three years next preceding the date of investment in such preferred or guaranteed stock: Provided, further, That if the stocks are guaranteed, the amount of stocks so guaranteed is not excess of fifty per centum of the amount of the preferred or common stocks, as the case may be, of the guaranteeing corporation: and Provided, finally, That no life insurance company shall invest in or loan upon obligations of any one institution in the kinds permitted under this sub-section an amount in excess of ten per centum of the total admitted assets of such insurer as of December thirty-first next preceding the date of such investment.

      (f) Common stocks of any solvent corporation or institution created or existing under the laws of the Philippines upon which regular dividends shall have been paid for the three years next preceding the purchase of such stock: Provided, however, That no life insurance company shall invest in or loan upon the obligations of any one corporation or institution in the kinds permitted under this sub-section an amount in excess of ten per centum of the total admitted assets of such insurer as of December thirty-first next preceding the date of such investment.

      (g) Certificates, notes and other obligations issued by the trustees or receivers of any institution created or existing under the laws of the Philippines which, or the assets of which, are being administered under the direction of any court having jurisdiction; Provided, however, That such certificates, notes or other obligations are adequately secured as to principal and interests.

      (h) Equipment trust obligations or certificates which are adequately secured or other adequately secured instruments evidencing an interest in equipment wholly or in part within the Philippines: Provided, however, That there is a right to receive determined portions of rental, purchase or other fixed obligatory payments for the use or purchase of such equipment.

      (i) Any obligation of any corporation or institution created or existing under the laws of the Philippines which is, on the date of acquisition by the insurer, adequately secured and has qualities and characteristics wherein the speculative elements are not predominant.

      (j) Such other securities as may be approved by the Commissioner.

(3) Any domestic insurer which has outstanding insurance, annuity or reinsurance contracts in currencies other than the national currency of the Philippines may invest in, or otherwise acquire or loan upon securities and investments in such currency which are substantially of the same kinds, classes and investment grades as those eligible for investment under the foregoing subdivisions of this section; but the aggregate amount of such investment and of such cash in such currency which is at anytime held by such insurer shall not exceed one and one-half times the amount of its reserves and other obligations under such contracts or the amount which such insurer is required by the law of any country or possession outside the Republic of the Philippines to be invest in such country or possession, whichever shall be greater.

Sec. 201. An insurance company may (1) invest in equities of other financial institutions, and (2) engage in the buying and selling of short-term debt instruments: Provided, That any or all of such investments shall be with the prior approval of the Commissioner.

Sec. 202. Any life insurance company may:

      (a) Acquire or construct housing projects and, in connection with any such project, may acquire land or any interest therein by purchase, lease or otherwise, or use land acquired pursuant to any other provision of this Code. Such company may thereafter own, maintain, manage, collect or receive income from, or sell and convey, any land or interest therein so acquired and any improvements thereon. The aggregate book value of the investments of any such company in all such projects shall not exceed at the time of such investments twenty five per centum of the total admitted assets of such company on the thirty-first day of December next preceding;

      (b) Acquire real property, other than property to be used primarily for providing housing and property for accommodation of its own business, as an investment for the production of income, or may acquire real property to be improved or developed for such investment purpose pursuant to a program therefor, subject to the condition that the cost of each parcel of real property so acquired under the authority of this paragraph (b), including the estimated cost to the company of the improvement or development thereof, when added to the book value of all other real property held by its pursuant to this paragraph (b), shall not exceed twenty-five per centum of its admitted assets as of the thirty-first day of December next preceding.

Sec. 203. Every domestic insurance company shall, to the extent of an amount equal in value to twenty-five per centum of the minimum paid-up capital required under section one hundred eighty-eight, invest its funds only in securities, satisfactory to the Commissioner, consisting of bonds or other evidences of debt of the Government of the Philippines or its political subdivisions or instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, including the Central Bank of the Philippines: Provided, That such investments shall at all times be maintained free from any lien or encumbrance; and Provided, further, That such securities shall be deposited with and held by the Commissioner for the faithful performance by the depositing insurer of all its obligations under its insurance contracts. The provisions of section one hundred ninety-two shall, so far as practicable, apply to the securities deposited under this section.

Except as otherwise provided in this Code, no judgment creditor or other claimant shall have the right to levy upon any of the securities of the insurer held on deposit under this section or held on deposit pursuant to the requirement of the Commissioner. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 204. After satisfying the requirements contained in the preceding section, any domestic non-life insurance company, shall invest, to an amount prescribed below, its funds in, or otherwise, acquire or loan upon, only the classes of investments described in section two hundred, including securities issued by any "registered enterprise", as this term is defined in Republic Act No. 5186, otherwise known as the Investment Incentives Act, and such other classes of investments as may be authorized by the Commissioner for purposes of this section: Provided, That (a) no more than twenty per centum of the net worth of such company as shown by its latest financial statement approved by the Commissioner shall be invested in the lot and building in which the insurance company conducts its business and (b) the total investment of an insurance company in any registered enterprise shall not exceed twenty per centum of the net worth of said insurance company as shown by its aforesaid financial statement nor twenty per centum of the paid-up capital of the registered enterprise excluding the intended investment, unless previously authorized by the Commissioner: and, Provided, further, That such investments free from any lien or encumbrance, shall be at least equal in amount to the aggregate amount of (a) its legal reserve, as provided in section two hundred thirteen, and (b) its reserve fund held for reinsurance as provided for in the pertinent treaty provision in the case of reinsurance ceded to authorized insurers. (As amended by Presidential Decree No.1455).

Sec. 205. After satisfying the requirements contained in sections one hundred ninety-one, one hundred ninety-three, two hundred three and two hundred four, any non-life insurance company may invest any portion of its funds representing earned surplus in any of the investments described in sections one hundred ninety-eight, two hundred and two hundred one, or in any securities issued by a "registered enterprise" mentioned in the preceding sections: Provided, That no investment in stocks or bonds of any single entity shall in the aggregate, exceed twenty per centum of the net worth of the insurance company as shown in its latest financial statement approved by the Commissioner or twenty per centum of the paid-up capital of the issuing company, whichever is lesser, unless otherwise approved by the Commissioner.

Sec. 206. After satisfying the minimum capital investment required in section two hundred three, any life insurance company may invest its legal policy reserve, as provided in section two hundred eleven or in section two hundred twelve, in any of the classes of securities or types of investments described in sections one hundred ninety-eight, two hundred, two hundred one and two hundred two, subject to the limitations therein contained, and in any securities issued by any "registered enterprise" mentioned in section two hundred four, free from any lien or encumbrance, in such amounts as may be approved by the Commissioner. Such company may likewise invest any portion of its earned surplus in the aforesaid securities or investments subject to the aforesaid limitations.

Sec. 207. Any investment made in violation of the applicable provisions of this title shall be considered non-admitted assets.

Sec. 208. (1) All bonds or other evidences of indebtedness having a fixed term and rate of interest and held by any life insurance company authorized to do business in this country, if amply secured and if not in default as to principal or interest, shall be valued as follows: If purchased at par, at the par value; if purchased above or below par, on the basis of the purchase price adjusted so as to bring the value to par at maturity and so as to yield in the meantime the effective rate of interest at which the purchase was made, or in the discretion of the Commissioner, on the basis of the method of calculation commonly known as the pro-rata method. In applying the foregoing rule the purchase price shall in no case be taken at a higher figure than the actual market value at the time of acquisition. The Commissioner shall have the power to determine the eligibility of any such investments for valuation on the basis of amortization, and may by regulation prescribe or limit the classes of securities so eligible for amortization. All bonds or other evidences of indebtedness which in the judgment of the Commissioner are not amply secured shall not be eligible for amortization and shall be valued in accordance with paragraph two. The Commissioner may, if he finds that the interest of policy holders so permit or require, by official regulation permit or require any class or classes of insurers, other than life insurance companies, authorized to do business in this country, to value their bonds or other evidences of indebtedness in accordance with the foregoing rule.

(2) The investments of all insurers authorized to do business in this country, except securities subject to amortization and except as otherwise provided in this chapter, shall be valued, in the discretion of the Commissioner, at their market value, or at their appraised value, or at prices determined by him as representing their fair market value. If the Commissioner finds that in view of the character of investments of any insurer authorized to do business in this country it would be prudent for such insurer to establish a special reserve for possible losses or fluctuations in the values of its investments, he may require such insurer to establish such reserve, reasonable in amount, and may require that such reserve be maintained and reported in any statement or report of the financial condition of such insurer. The Commissioner may, in connection with any examination or required financial statement of an authorized insurer, require such insurer to furnish him complete financial statements and audited report of the financial condition of any corporation of which the securities are owned wholly or partly by such insurer and may cause an examination to be made of any subsidiary or affiliate of such insurer.

(3) The stock of an insurance company shall be valued at the lesser of its market value or its book value as shown by its last approved annual statement or the last report on examination, whichever is more recent. The book value of a share of common stock of an insurance company shall be ascertained by dividing (a) the amount of its capital and surplus less the value of all of its preferred stock, if any, outstanding, by (b) the number of shares of its common stock issued and outstanding.
Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, an insurer may, at its option, value its holdings of stock in a subsidiary insurance company in an amount not less than acquisition cost if such acquisition cost is less than the value determined as hereinbefore provided.

(4) Real estate required by foreclosure or by deed in lieu thereof, in the absence of a recent appraisal deemed by the Commissioner to be reliable, shall not be valued at an amount greater than the unpaid principal of the defaulted loan at the date of such foreclosure or deed, together with any taxes and expenses paid or incurred by such insurer at such time in connection with such acquisition, and the cost of additions or improvements thereafter paid by such insurer and any amount or amounts thereafter paid by such insurer on any assessments levied for improvements in connection with the property.

(5) Purchase money mortgages received on dispositions of real property held pursuant to section one hundred ninety-eight shall be valued in an amount equivalent to ninety per centum of the value of such real property. Purchase money mortgages received on disposition of real property otherwise held shall be valued in an amount not exceeding ninety per centum of the value of such real property as determined by an appraisal made by an appraiser at or about the time of disposition of such real property.

(6) The stock of a subsidiary of an insurer shall be valued on the basis of the greater of (i) the value of only such subsidiary of the assets of such subsidiary as would constitute lawful investments for the insurer if acquired or held directly by the insurer or (ii) such other value determined pursuant to standards and cumulative limitations, contained in a regulation to be promulgated by the Commissioner.

(7) Notwithstanding any provision contained in this section or elsewhere in this chapter, if the Commissioner find that the interests of policyholders so permit or require, he may permit or require any class or classes of insurers authorized to do business in this country to value their investments or any class or classes thereof as of any date heretofore or hereafter in accordance with any applicable valuation or method.

Sec. 209. It shall be the duty of the officers of the insurance company to report within the first fifteen days of every month all such investments as may be made by them during the preceding month, and the Commissioner may, if such investments or any of them seem injudicious to him, require the sale or disposal of the same. The report shall also include a list of investments sold or disposed of by the company during the same period.

Title 5
RESERVES

Sec. 210. Every life insurance company, doing business in the Philippines, shall annually make a valuation of all policies, additions thereto, unpaid dividends, and all other obligations outstanding on the thirty-first day of December of the preceding year. All such valuations shall be made upon the net premiums basis, according to the standard adopted by the company, which standard shall be stated in its annual report.

Such standard of valuation whether of the net level premium, full preliminary term, any modified preliminary term, or select and ultimate reserve basis, shall be according to a standard table of mortality with interest at not more than six per centum compound interest. When the preliminary term basis is used, the term insurance shall be limited to the first policy year.

The results of such valuations shall be reported to the Commissioner on or before the thirtieth day of April of each year accompanied by a sworn statement of the company's actuary certifying to the figures and stating upon what mortality table it is based, upon what rate of interest the valuation is made, and the methods used in arriving at the result obtained.

Sec. 211. The aggregate net value so ascertained of the policies of such company shall be deemed its reserve liability, to provide for which it shall hold funds in secure investments equal to such net value, above all its other liabilities; and it shall be the duty of the Commissioner, after having verified, to such an extent as he may deem necessary, the valuation of all policies in force, to satisfy himself that the company has such amount in safe legal securities after all other debts and claims against it have been provided for.

The reserve liability for variable contracts defined in section two hundred thirty-two shall be established in accordance with actuarial procedures that recognize the variable nature of the benefits provided, and shall be approved by the Commissioner.

Sec. 212. Every domestic life insurance company, conducted on the mutual plan or a plan in which policyholders are by the terms of their policies entitled to share in the profits or surplus shall, on all policies of life insurance heretofore or hereafter issued, under the conditions of which the distribution of surplus is deferred to a fixed or specified time and contingent upon the policy being in force and the insured living at that time, annually ascertain the amount of the surplus to which all such policies as separate class are entitled, and shall annually apportion to such policies as a class the amount of the surplus so ascertained, and carry the amount of such apportioned surplus, plus the actual interest earnings and accretions to such fund, as a distinct and separate liability to such class of policies on and for which the same was accumulated, and no company or any of its officers shall be permitted to use any part of such apportioned surplus fund for any purpose whatsoever other than for the express purpose for which the same was accumulated.

Sec. 213. Every insurance company, other than life, shall maintain a reserve for unearned premiums on its policies in force, which shall be charged as a liability in any determination of its financial condition. Such reserve shall be equal to forty per centum of the gross premiums, less returns and cancellations, received on policies or risks having not more than a year to run, and pro rata on all gross premiums received on policies or risks having more than a year to run: Provided, That for marine cargo risks the reserve shall be equal to forty per centum of the premiums written in the policies upon yearly risks, and the full amount of the premiums written during the last two months of the calendar year upon all other marine risks not terminated.

Sec. 214. In addition to its liabilities and reserves on contracts of insurance issued by it, every insurance company shall be charged with the estimated amount of all of its other liabilities, including taxes, expenses and other obligations due or accrued at the date of statement, and including any special reserves required by the Commissioner pursuant to the provisions of this Code.

Title 6
LIMIT OF SINGLE RISK

Sec. 215. No insurance company other than life, whether foreign or domestic, shall retain any risk on any one subject of insurance in an amount exceeding twenty per centum of its net worth. For purposes of this section, the term "subject of insurance" shall include all properties or risks insured by the same insurer that customarily are considered by non-life company underwriters to be subject to loss or damage from the same occurrence of any hazard insured against.

Reinsurance ceded as authorized under the succeeding title shall be deducted in determining the risk retained. As to surety risk, deduction shall also be made of the amount assumed by any other company authorized to transact surety business and the value of any security mortgage, pledged, or held subject to the surety's control and for the surety's protection.

Title 7
REINSURANCE TRANSACTIONS

Sec. 216. An insurance company doing business in the Philippines may accept reinsurances only of such risks, and retain risk thereon within such limits, as it is otherwise authorized to insure.

Sec. 217. No insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall cede all or part of any risks situated in the Philippines by way of reinsurance directly to any foreign insurer not authorized to do business in the Philippines unless such foreign insurer or, if the services of a non-resident broker are utilized, such non-resident broker is represented in the Philippines by a resident agent duly registered with the Commissioner as required in this Code.

The resident agent of such unauthorized foreign insurer or non- resident broker shall immediately upon registration furnish the Commissioner with the annual statement of such insurer, or of such company or companies where such broker may place Philippine business as of the year preceding such registration, and annually thereafter as soon as available.

Sec. 218. All insurance companies, both life and non-life, authorized to do business in the Philippines shall cede their excess risks to other companies similarly authorized to do business in the Philippines in such amounts and under such arrangements as would be consistent with sound underwriting practices before they enter into reinsurance arrangements with unauthorized foreign insurers.

Sec. 219. Any insurance company doing business in the Philippines desiring to cede their excess risks to foreign insurance or reinsurance companies not authorized to transact business in the Philippines may do so under the following conditions:

      (1) Except in facultative reinsurance and excess of loss covers, the full amount of the reserve fund required by law shall be set up in the books of and held by the ceding company for so long as the risk concerned is in force: Provided, That in case of facultative insurance, the ceding company shall show to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the Philippine market cannot provide the facilities sought abroad.

      (2) The reserve fund withheld shall be invested in bonds or other evidences of debt of the Government of the Philippines or its political subdivisions or instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, including the Central Bank, and/or other securities acceptable under section two hundred.

Should any reinsurance agreement be for any reason cancelled or terminated, the ceding company concerned shall inform the Commissioner in writing of such cancellation or termination within thirty days from the date of such cancellation or termination or from the date notice or information of such cancellation or termination is received by such company as the case may be.

Sec. 220. Every insurance company authorized to do business in the Philippines shall report to the Commissioner on forms prescribed by him the particulars of reinsurance treaties as of the first day of January of the year following the approval of this Code and shall thereafter similarly report to the Commissioner particulars of any new treaties or changes in existing treaties.

Sec. 221. No credit shall be allowed as an admitted asset or as a deduction from liability, to any ceding insurer for reinsurance made, ceded, renewed, or otherwise becoming effective after January first, nineteen hundred seventy-five, unless the reinsurance shall be payable by the assuming insurer on the basis of the liability of the ceding insurer under the contract or contracts reinsured without diminution because of the insolvency of the ceding insurer nor unless under the contract or contracts of reinsurance the liability for such reinsurance is assumed by the assuming insurer or insurers as of the same effective date; nor unless the reinsurance agreement provides that payments by the assuming insurer shall be made directly to the ceding insurer or to its liquidator, receiver, or statutory successor except (a) where the contract specifically provides another payee of such reinsurance in the event of the insolvency of the ceding insurer and (b) where the assuming insurer with the consent of the direct insured or insureds has assumed such policy obligations of the ceding insurer as direct obligations of the assuming insurer to the payees under such policies and in substitution for the obligations of the ceding insurer to such payees.

Sec. 222. No life insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall reinsure its whole risk on any individual life or joint lives, or substantially all of its insurance in force, without having first obtained the written permission of the Commissioner.

Title 8
ANNUAL STATEMENT

Sec. 223. Every insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall terminate its fiscal period on the thirty-first day of December every year, and shall annually on or before the thirtieth day of April of each year render to the Commissioner a statement signed and sworn to by the chief officer of such company showing, in such form and details as may be prescribed by the Commissioner, the exact condition of its affairs on the preceding thirty-first day of December.

Any entry in the statement which is found to be false shall constitute a misdemeanor and the officer signing such statement shall be subject to the penalty provided for under section four hundred nineteen.

Sec. 224. Every insurance company authorized under title ten of this chapter to issue, deliver or use variable contracts shall annually file with the Commissioner separate annual statement of its separate variable accounts. Such statement shall be on a form prescribed or approved by the Commissioner and shall include details as to all of the income, disbursements, assets and liability items of and associated with the said separate variable accounts. Said statement shall be under oath of two officers of the company and shall be filed simultaneously with the annual statement required by the preceding section.

Sec. 225. Within thirty days after receipt of the annual statement approved by the Commissioner, every insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall publish in two newspapers of general circulation in the City of Manila, one published in English and one in Pilipino, a full sypnosis of its annual financial statement showing fully the conditions of its business, and setting forth its resources and liabilities.

Title 9
POLICY FORMS

Sec. 226. No policy, certificate or contract of insurance shall be issued or delivered within the Philippines unless in the form previously approved by the Commissioner, and no application form shall be used with, and no rider, clause, warranty or endorsement shall be attached to, printed or stamped upon such policy, certificate or contract unless the form of such application, rider, clause, warranty or endorsement has been approved by the Commissioner.

Sec. 227. In the case of individual life or endowment insurance, the policy shall contain in substance the following conditions:

      (a) A provision that the policyholder is entitled to a grace period either of thirty days or of one month within which the payment of any premium after the first may be made, subject at the option of the insurer to an interest charge not in excess of six per centum per annum for the number of days of grace elapsing before the payment of the premium, during which period of grace the policy shall continue in full force, but in case the policy becomes a claim during the said period of grace before the overdue premium is paid, the amount of such premium with interest may de deducted from the amount payable under the policy in settlement;

      (b) A provision that the policy shall be incontestable after it shall have been in force during the lifetime of the insured for a period of two years from its date of issue as shown in the policy, or date of approval of last reinstatement, except for non-payment of premium and except for violation of the conditions of the policy relating to military or naval service in time of war;

      (c) A provision that the policy shall constitute the entire contract between the parties, but if the company desires to make the application a part of the contract it may do so provided a copy of such application shall be indorsed upon or attached to the policy when issued, and in such case the policy shall contain a provision that the policy and the application therefor shall constitute the entire contract between the parties;

      (d) A provision that if the age of the insured is considered in determining the premium and the benefits accruing under the policy, and the age of the insured has been misstated, the amount payable under the policy shall be such as the premium would have purchased at the correct age;

      (e) If the policy is participating, a provision that the company shall periodically ascertain and apportion any divisible surplus accruing on the policy under conditions specified therein;

      (f) A provision specifying the options to which the policyholder is entitled to in the event of default in a premium payment after three full annual premiums shall have been paid. Such option shall consist of:
       
            (1) A cash surrender value payable upon surrender of the policy which shall not be less than the reserve on the policy, the basis of which shall be indicated, for the then current policy year and any dividend additions thereto, reduced by a surrender charge which shall not be more than one-fifth of the entire reserve or two and one-half per centum of the amount insured and any dividend additions thereto;

            (2) One or more paid-up benefits on a plan or plans specified in the policy of such value as may be purchased by the cash surrender value;
      (g) A provision that at anytime after a cash surrender value is available under the policy and while the policy is in force, the company will advance, on proper assignment or pledge of the policy and on sole security thereof, a sum equal to, or at the option of the owner of the policy, less than the cash surrender value on the policy, at a specified rate of interest, not more than the maximum allowed by law, to be determined by the company from time to time, but not more often than once a year, subject to the approval of the Commissioner; and that the company will deduct from such loan value any existing indebtedness on the policy and any unpaid balance of the premium for the current policy year, and may collect interest in advance on the loan to the end of the current policy year, which provision may further provide that such loan may be deferred for not exceeding six months after the application therefor is made;

      (h) A table showing in figures cash surrender values and paid-up options available under the policy each year upon default in premium payments, during at least twenty years of the policy beginning with the year in which the values and options first become available, together with a provision that in the event of the failure of the policyholder to elect one of the said options within the time specified in the policy, one of said options shall automatically take effect and no policyholder shall ever forfeit his right to same by reason of his failure to so elect;

      (i) In case the proceeds of a policy are payable in installments or as an annuity, a table showing the minimum amounts of the installments or annuity payments;

      (j) A provision that the policyholder shall be entitled to have the policy reinstated at any time within three years from the date of default of premium payment unless the cash surrender value has been duly paid, or the extension period has expired, upon production of evidence of insurability satisfactory to the company and upon payment of all overdue premiums and any indebtedness to the company upon said policy, with interest rate not exceeding that which would have been applicable to said premiums and indebtedness in the policy years prior to reinstatement.

Any of the foregoing provisions or portions thereof not applicable to single premium or term policies shall to that extent not be incorporated therein; and any such policy may be issued and delivered in the Philippines which in the opinion of the Commissioner contains provisions on any one or more of the foregoing requirements more favorable to the policyholder than hereinbefore required.
This section shall not apply to policies of group life or industrial life insurance.

Sec. 228. No policy of group life insurance shall be issued and delivered in the Philippines unless it contains in substance the following provisions, or provisions which in the opinion of the Commissioner are more favorable to the persons insured, or at least as favorable to the persons insured and more favorable to the policy-holders:

      (a) A provision that the policyholder is entitled to a grace period of either thirty days or of one month for the payment of any premium due after the first, during which grace period the death benefit coverage shall continue in force, unless the policyholder shall have given the insurer written notice of discontinuance in advance of the date of discontinuance and in accordance with the terms of the policy. The policy may provide that the policyholder shall be liable for the payment of a pro rata premium for the time the policy is in force during such grace period;

      (b) A provision that the validity of the policy shall not be contested, except for non-payment of premiums after it has been in force for two years from its date of issue; and that no statement made by any insured under the policy relating to his insurability shall be used in contesting the validity of the insurance with respect to which such statement was made after such insurance has been in force prior to the contest for a period of two years during such person's lifetime nor unless contained in written instrument signed by him;

      (c) A provision that a copy of the application, if any, of the policyholder shall be attached to the policy when issued, that all statements made by the policyholder or by persons insured shall be deemed representations and not warranties, and that no statement made by any insured shall be used in any contest unless a copy of the instrument containing the statement is or has been furnished to such person or to his beneficiary;

      (d) A provision setting forth the conditions, if any, under which the insurer reserves the right to require a person eligible for insurance to furnish evidence of individual insurability satisfactory to the insurer as a condition to part or all of his coverage;

      (e) A provision specifying an equitable adjustment of premiums or of benefits or of both to be made in the event that the age of a person insured has been misstated, such provision to contain a clear statement of the method of adjustment to be used;

      (f) A provision that any sum becoming due by reason of death of the person insured shall be payable to the beneficiary designated by the insured, subject to the provisions of the policy in the event that there is no designated beneficiary, as to all or any part of such sum, living at the death of the insured, and subject to any right reserved by the insurer in the policy and set forth in the certificate to pay at its option a part of such sum not exceeding five hundred pesos to any person appearing to the insurer to be equitably entitled thereto by reason of having incurred funeral or other expenses incident to the last illness or death of the person insured;

      (g) A provision that the insurer will issue to the policyholder for delivery to each person insured an individual certificate setting forth a statement as to the insurance protection to which he is entitled, to whom the insurance benefits are payable, and the rights set forth in paragraphs (h), (i) and (j) following;

      (h) A provision that if the insurance, or any portion of it, on a person covered under the policy ceases because of termination of employment or of membership in the class or classes eligible for coverage under the policy, such person shall be entitled to have issued to him by the insurer, without evidence of insurability, an individual policy of life insurance without disability or other supplementary benefits, provided application for the individual policy and payment of the first premium to the insurer shall be made within thirty days after such termination and provided further that:
       
            (1) the individual policy shall be on any one of the forms, except term insurance, then customarily issued by the insurer at the age and for an amount not in excess of the coverage under the group policy; and

            (2) the premium on the individual policy shall be at the insurer's then customary rate applicable to the form and amount of the individual policy, to the class of risk to which such person then belongs, and to his age attained on the effective date of the individual policy.


      (i) A provision that if the group policy terminates or is amended so as to terminate the insurance of any class of insured persons, every person insured thereunder at the date of such termination whose insurance terminates and who has been so insured for five years prior to such termination date shall be entitled to have issued to him by the insurer an individual policy of life insurance subject to the same limitations as set forth in paragraph (h), except that the group policy may provide that the amount of such individual policy shall not exceed the smaller of (a) the amount of the person's life insurance protection ceasing less the amount of any life insurance for what he is or becomes eligible under any group policy issued or reinstated by the same or another reinsurer within thirty days after such termination, and (b) two thousand pesos;

      (j) A provision that if a person insured under the group policy dies during the thirty-day period within which he would have been entitled to an individual policy issued to him in accordance with (h) and (i) above and before such individual policy shall have become effective, the amount of life insurance which he would have been entitled to have issued to him as an individual policy shall be payable as a claim under the group policy whether or not application for the individual policy or the payment of the first premium has been made;

      (k) In the case of a policy issued to a creditor to insure debtors of such creditor, a provision that the insurer will furnish to the policyholder for delivery to each debtor insured under the policy a form which will contain a statement that the life of the debtor is insured under the policy and that any death benefit paid thereunder by reason of his death shall be applied to reduce or extinguish indebtedness.

The provisions of paragraphs (f) to (j) shall not apply to policies issued to a creditor to insure his debtors. If a group life policy is on a plan of insurance other than term, it shall contain a non-forfeiture provision or provisions which in the opinion of the Commissioner is or are equitable to the insured or the policyholder: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to require group life policies to contain the same non-forfeiture provisions as are required of individual life policies.

Sec. 229. The term "industrial life insurance" as used in this Code shall mean that form of life insurance under which the premiums are payable either monthly or oftener, if the face amount of insurance provided in any policy is not more than five hundred times that of the current statutory minimum daily wage in the City of Manila, and if the words "industrial policy" are printed upon the policy as part of the descriptive matter.

An industrial life policy shall not lapse for non-payment of premium if such non-payment was due to the failure of the company to send its representative or agent to the insured at the residence of the insured or at some other place indicated by him for the purpose of collecting such premium: Provided, That the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply when the premium on the policy remains unpaid for a period of three months or twelve weeks after the grace period has expired.

Sec. 230. In the case of industrial life insurance, the policy shall contain in substance the following provisions:

      (a) A provision that the insured is entitled to a grace period of four weeks within which the payment of any premium after the first may be made, except that where premiums are payable monthly, the period of grace shall be either one month or thirty days; and that during the period of grace, the policy shall continue in full force, but if during such grace period the policy becomes a claim, then any overdue and unpaid premiums may be deducted from any amount payable under the policy in settlement;

      (b) A provision that the policy shall be incontestable after it has been in force during the lifetime of the insured for a specified period, not more than two years from its date of issue, except for non-payment of premiums and except for violation of the conditions of the policy relating to naval or military service, or services auxiliary thereto, and except as to provisions relating to benefits in the event of disability as defined in the policy, and those granting additional insurance specifically against death by accident or by accidental means, or to additional insurance against loss of, or loss of use of, specific members of the body;

      (c) A provision that the policy shall constitute the entire contract between the parties, or if a copy of the application is endorsed upon and attached to the policy when issued, a provision that the policy and the application therefor shall constitute the entire contract between the parties, and in the latter case, a provision that all statements made by the insured shall, in the absence of fraud, be deemed representations and not warranties;

      (d) A provision that if the age of the person insured, or the age of any person, considered in determining the premium, or the benefits accruing under the policy, has been misstated, any amount payable or benefit accruing under the policy shall be such as the premium paid would have purchased at the correct age;

      (e) A provision that if the policy is a participating policy, the company shall periodically ascertain and apportion any divisible surplus accruing on the policy under the conditions specified therein;

      (f) A provision that in the event of default in premium payments after three full years' premiums have been paid, the policy shall be converted into a stipulated form of insurance, and that in the event of default in premium payments after five full years' premiums have been paid, a specified cash surrender value shall be available, in lieu of the stipulated form of insurance, at the option of the policyholder. The net value of such stipulated form of insurance and the amount of such cash value shall not be less than the reserve on the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, at the end of the last completed policy year for which premiums shall have been paid (the policy to specify the mortality table, rate of interest and method of valuation adopted to compute such reserve), exclusive of any reserve on disability benefits and accidental death benefits, less an amount not to exceed two and one-half per centum of the maximum amount insured by the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, at the end of the last completed policy year for which premiums shall have been paid (the policy to specify the mortality table, rate of interest and method of valuation adopted to compute such reserve), exclusive of any reserve on disability benefits and accidental death benefits, less an amount not to exceed two and one-half per centum of the maximum amount insured by the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, when the issue age is under ten years, and less an amount not to exceed two and one-half per centum of the current amount insured by the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, if the issue age is ten years or older, and less any existing indebtedness to the company on or secured by the policy;

      (g) A provision that the policy may be surrendered to the company at its home office within a period of not less than sixty days after the due date of a premium in default for the specified cash value, provided that the insurer may defer payment for not more than six months after the application therefor is made;

      (h) A table that shows in figures the non-forfeiture benefits available under the policy every year upon default in payment of premiums during at least the first twenty years of the policy, such table to begin with the year in which such values become available, and a provision that the company will furnish upon request an extension of such table beyond the year shown in the policy;

      (i) A provision that specifies which one of the stipulated forms of insurance provided for under the provision of paragraph (f) of this section shall take effect in the event of the insured's failure, within sixty days from the due date of the premium in default, to notify the insurer in writing as to which one of such forms he has selected;

      (j) A provision that the policy may be reinstated at any time within two years from the due date of the premium in default unless the cash surrender value has been paid or the period of extended term insurance expired, upon production of evidence of insurability satisfactory to the company and payment of arrears of premiums with interest at a rate not exceeding six per centum per annum payable annually;

      (k) A provision that when a policy shall become a claim by death of the insured, settlement shall be made upon receipt of due proof of death, or not later than two months after receipt of such proof;

      (l) A title on the face and on the back of the policy correctly describing its form;

      (m) A space on the front or the back of the policy for the name of the beneficiary designated by the insured with a reservation of the insured's right to designate or change the beneficiary after the issuance of the policy. The policy may also provide that no designation or change of beneficiary shall be binding on the insurer until endorsed on the policy by the insurer, and that the insurer may refuse to endorse the name of any proposed beneficiary who does not appear to the insurer to have an insurable interest in the life of the insured. Such policy may also contain a provision that if the beneficiary designated in the policy does not surrender the policy with due proof of death within the period stated in the policy, which shall not be less than thirty days after the death of the insured, or if the beneficiary is the estate of the insured, or is a minor, or dies before the insured, or is not legally competent to give valid release, then the insurer may make any payment thereunder to the executor or administrator of the insured, or to any of the insured's relatives by blood or legal adoption or connections by marriage or to any person appearing to the insurer to be equitably entitled thereto by reason of having incurred expense for the maintenance, medical attention or burial of the insured; and

      (n) A provision that when an industrial life insurance policy is issued providing for accidental or health benefits, or both, in addition to life insurance, the foregoing provisions shall apply only to the life insurance portion of the policy.

Any of the foregoing provisions or portions thereof not applicable to non-participating or term policies shall to that extent not be incorporated therein. The foregoing provisions shall not apply to policies issued or granted pursuant to the non-forfeiture provisions prescribed in provisions of paragraphs (f) and (i) of this section, nor shall provisions of paragraphs (f), (g), (h), and (i) hereof be required in term insurance of twenty years or less but such term policies shall specify the mortality table, rate of interest, and method of computing reserves.

Sec. 231. No policy of industrial life insurance shall be issued or delivered in the Philippines if it contains any of the following provisions:

      (a) A provision that gives the insurer the right to declare the policy void because the insured has had any disease or ailment, whether specified or not, or because the insured has received institutional, hospital, medical or surgical treatment or attention, except a provision which gives the insurer the right to declare the policy void if the insured has, within two years prior to the issuance of the policy, received institutional hospital, medical or surgical treatment or attention and if the insured or the claimant under the policy fails to show that the condition occasioning such treatment or attention was not of a serious nature or was not material to the risk;

      (b) A provision that gives the insurer the right to declare the policy void because the insured has been rejected for insurance, unless such right be conditioned upon a showing by the insurer that knowledge of such rejection would have led to a refusal by the insurer to make such contract;

      (c) A provision that allows the company to pay the proceeds of the policy at the death of the insured to any person other than the named beneficiary, except in accordance with a standard provision as specified under the provisions of paragraph (m) of the preceding section;

      (d) A provision that limits the time within which any action at law or in equity may be commenced to less than six years after the cause of action shall accrue; and

      (e) A provision that specifies any mode of settlement at maturity of less value than the amount insured by the policy plus dividend additions, if any, less any indebtedness to the company on the policy and less any premium that may by the terms of the policy be deducted, payments to be made in accordance with the terms of the policy.

Nothing contained in this section nor in the provision of paragraph (b) of the preceding section, relating to incontestability, shall be construed as prohibiting the life insurance company from placing in its industrial life policies provisions limiting its liability with respect to: (1) death resulting from aviation other than as a fare-paying passenger on a regularly scheduled route between definitely established airports; and (2) military or naval service: Provided, That if the liability of the company is limited as herein provided, such liability shall in no event be fixed at an amount less than the reserve on the policy (excluding the reserve for any additional benefits in the event of death by accident or accidental means or for benefits in the event of any type of disability), less any indebtedness on or secured by such policy; nor shall any provision of this section apply to any provision in an industrial life insurance policy for additional benefits in the event of death by accident or accidental means.

Title 10
VARIABLE CONTRACTS

Sec. 232. (1)  No insurance company authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall issue, deliver, sell or use any variable contract in the Philippines, unless and until such company shall have satisfied the Commissioner that its financial and general condition and its methods of operations, including the issue and sale of variable contracts, are not and will not be hazardous to the public or to its policy and contract owners. No foreign insurance company shall be authorized to issue, deliver or sell any variable contract in the Philippines, unless it is likewise authorized to do so by the laws of its domicile.

(2) The term "variable contract" shall mean any policy or contract on either a group or on an individual basis issued by an insurance company providing for benefits or other contractual payments or values thereunder to vary so as to reflect investment results of any segregated portfolio of investments or of a designated separate account in which amounts received in connection with such contracts shall have been placed and accounted for separately and apart from other investments and accounts. This contract may also provide benefits or values incidental thereto payable in fixed or variable amounts, or both. It shall not be deemed to be a "security" or "securities" as defined in The Securities Act, as amended, or in the The Investment Company Act, as amended, nor subject to regulation under said Acts.

(3) In determining the qualifications of a company requesting authority to issue, deliver, sell or use variable contracts, the Commissioner shall always consider the following: (a) the history, financial and general condition of the company: Provided, That such company, if a foreign company, must have deposited with the Commissioner for the benefit and security of its variable contract owners in the Philippines, securities satisfactory to the Commissioner consisting of bonds of the Government of the Philippines or its instrumentalities with an actual market value of two million pesos; (b) the character, responsibility and fitness of the officers and directors of the company; and (c) the law and regulation under which the company is authorized in the state of domicile to issue such contracts.

(4) If after notice and hearing, the Commissioner shall find that the company is qualified to issue, deliver, sell or use variable contracts in accordance with this Code and the regulations and rules issued thereunder, the corresponding order of authorization shall be issued. Any decision or order denying authority to issue, deliver, sell or use variable contracts shall clearly and distinctly state the reasons and grounds on which it is based.

Sec. 233. Any insurance company issuing variable contracts pursuant to this Code may in its discretion issue contracts providing a combination of fixed amount and variable amount of benefits and for option lump-sum payment of benefits.

Sec. 234. Every variable contract form delivered or issued for delivery in the Philippines, and every certified form evidencing variable benefits issued pursuant to any such contract on a group basis, and the application, rider and endorsement forms applicable thereto and used in connection therewith, shall be subject to the prior approval of the Commissioner.

Sec. 235. Illustration of benefits payable under any variable contract shall not include or involve projections of past investment experience into the future and shall conform with the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commissioner.

Sec. 236. Variable contracts may be issued on the industrial life basis, provided that the pertinent provisions of this Code and of the rules and regulations of the Commissioner governing variable contracts are complied with in connection with such contracts.

Sec. 237. Every life insurance company authorized under the provisions of this Code to issue, deliver, sell or use variable contracts shall, in connection with same, establish one or more separate accounts to be known as separate variable accounts. All amounts received by the company in connection with any such contracts which are required by the terms thereof, to be collected or applied to one or more designated separate variable accounts shall be placed in such designated account or accounts. The assets and liabilities of each such separate variable account shall at all times be clearly identifiable and distinguishable from the assets and liabilities in all other accounts of the company. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the assets held in any such separate variable account shall not be chargeable with liabilities arising out of any other business the company conduct but shall be held and applied exclusively for the benefit of the owners or beneficiaries of the variable contracts applicable thereto. In the event of the insolvency of the company, the assets of each such separate variable account shall be applied to the contractual claims of the owners or beneficiaries of the variable contracts applicable thereto. Except as otherwise specifically provided by the contract, no sale, exchange or other transfer of assets may be made by a company, between any of its separate accounts or between any other investment account and one or more of its separate accounts, unless in the case of a transfer into a separate account, such transfer is made solely to establish the account or to support the operation of the contracts with respect to the separate account to which the transfer is made, or in case of a transfer from a separate account, such transfer would not cause the remaining assets of the account to become less than the reserves and other contract liabilities with respect to such separate account. Such transfer, whether into or from a separate account, shall be made by a transfer of cash, or by a transfer of securities having a valuation which could be readily determined in the market place, provided that such transfer of securities is approved by the Commissioner. The Commissioner may authorize other transfers among such accounts, if, in his opinion, such transfer would not be inequitable. All amounts and assets allocated to any such separate variable account shall be owned by the company and with respect to same the company shall not be nor hold itself out to be a trustee.

Sec. 238. Any insurance company which has established one or more separate variable accounts pursuant to the preceding section may invest and re-invest all or any part of the assets allocated to any such account in the securities and investments authorized by sections one hundred ninety-eight, two hundred, two hundred one and two hundred two for any of the funds of an insurance company in such amount or amounts as may be approved by the Commissioner. In addition thereto, such company may also invest in common stocks or other equities which are listed on or admitted to trading in a securities exchange located in the Philippines, or which are publicly held and traded in the "over-the-counter market" as defined by the Commissioner and as to which market quotations have been available: Provided, however, That no such company shall invest in excess of ten per centum of the assets of any such separate variable accounts in any one corporation issuing such common stock. The assets and investments of such separate variable accounts shall not be taken into account in applying the quantitative investment limitations applicable to other investments of the company. In the purchase of common capital stock or other equities, the insurer shall designate to the broker, or to the seller if the purchase is not made through a broker, the specific variable account for which the investment is made.

Sec. 239. Assets allocated to any separate variable account shall be valued at their market value on the date of any valuation, or if there is no readily available market then in accordance with the terms of the variable contract applicable to such assets, or if there are no such contract terms then in such manner as may be prescribed by the rules and regulations of the Commissioner.

Sec. 240. The reserve liability for variable contracts shall be established in accordance with actuarial procedures that recognize the variable nature of the benefits provided, and shall be approved by the Commissioner.

Title 11
CLAIMS SETTLEMENT

Sec. 241. (1) No insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall refuse, without just cause, to pay or settle claims arising under coverages provided by its policies, nor shall any such company engage in unfair claim settlement practices. Any of the following acts by an insurance company, if committed without just cause and performed with such frequency as to indicate a general business practice, shall constitute unfair claim settlement practices:

      (a) knowingly misrepresenting to claimants pertinent facts or policy provisions relating to coverage at issue;

      (b) failing to acknowledge with reasonable promptness pertinent communications with respect to claims arising under its policies;

      (c) failing to adopt and implement reasonable standards for the prompt investigation of claims arising under its policies;

      (d) not attempting in good faith to effectuate prompt, fair and equitable settlement of claims submitted in which liability has become reasonably clear; or

      (e) compelling policyholders to institute suits to recover amounts due under its policies by offering without justifiable reason substantially less than the amounts ultimately recovered in suits brought by them.

(2) Evidence as to numbers and types of valid and justifiable complaints to the Commissioner against an insurance company, and the Commissioner's complaint experience with other insurance companies writing similar lines of insurance shall be admissible in evidence in an administrative or judicial proceeding brought under this section.

(3) If it is found, after notice and an opportunity to be heard, that an insurance company has violated this section, each instance of non-compliance with paragraph (1) may be treated as a separate violation of this section and shall be considered sufficient cause for the suspension or revocation of the company's certificate of authority.

Sec. 242. The proceeds of a life insurance policy shall be paid immediately upon maturity of the policy, unless such proceeds are made payable in installments or as an annuity, in which case the installments, or annuities shall be paid as they become due: Provided, however, That in the case of a policy maturing by the death of the insured, the proceeds thereof shall be paid within sixty days after presentation of the claim and filing of the proof of the death of the insured. Refusal or failure to pay the claim within the time prescribed herein will entitle the beneficiary to collect interest on the proceeds of the policy for the duration of the delay at the rate of twice the ceiling prescribed by the Monetary Board, unless such failure or refusal to pay is based on the ground that the claim is fraudulent.

The proceeds of the policy maturing by the death of the insured payable to the beneficiary shall include the discounted value of all premiums paid in advance of their due dates, but are not due and payable at maturity.

Sec. 243. The amount of any loss or damage for which an insurer may be liable, under any policy other than life insurance policy, shall be paid within thirty days after proof loss is received by the insurer and ascertainment of the loss or damage is made either by agreement between the insured and the insurer or by arbitration; but if such ascertainment is not had or made within sixty days after such receipt by the insurer of the proof of loss, then the loss or damage shall be paid within ninety days after such receipt. Refusal or failure to pay the loss or damage within the time prescribed herein will entitle the assured to collect interest on the proceeds of the policy for the duration of the delay at the rate of twice the ceiling prescribed by the Monetary Board, unless such failure or refusal to pay is based on the ground that the claim is fraudulent.

Sec. 244. In case of any litigation for the enforcement of any policy or contract of insurance, it shall be the duty of the Commissioner or the Court, as the case may be, to make a finding as to whether the payment of the claim of the insured has been unreasonably denied or withheld; and in the affirmative case, the insurance company shall be adjudged to pay damages which shall consist of attorney's fees and other expenses incurred by the insured person by reason of such unreasonable denial or withholding of payment plus interest of twice the ceiling prescribed by the Monetary Board of the amount of the claim due the insured, from the date following the time prescribed in section two hundred forty-two or in section two hundred forty-three, as the case may be, until the claim is fully satisfied; Provided, That the failure to pay any such claim within the time prescribed in said sections shall be considered prima facie evidence of unreasonable delay in payment.

Title 12
EXAMINATION OF COMPANIES

Sec. 245. The Commissioner shall require every insurance company doing business in the Philippines to keep its books, records, accounts and vouchers in such manner that he or his authorized representatives may readily verify its annual statements and ascertain whether the company is solvent and has complied with the provisions of this Code or the circulars, instructions, rulings or decisions of the Commissioner.

Sec. 246. The Commissioner shall at least once a year and whenever he considers the public interest so demands, cause an examination to be made into the affairs, financial condition and method of business of every insurance company authorized to transact business in the Philippines and of any other person, firm or corporation managing the affairs and/or property of such insurance company. Such company, as well as such managing person, firm or corporation, shall submit to the examiner all such books, papers and securities as he may require and such examiner shall also have the power to examine the officers of such company under oath touching its business and financial condition, and the authority to transact business in the Philippines of any such company shall be suspended by the Commissioner if such examination is refused and such company shall not thereafter be allowed to transact further business in the Philippines until it has fully complied with the provisions of this section.

Government-owned or controlled corporations or entities engaged in social private insurance shall similarly be subject to such examination by the Commissioner unless their respective charters otherwise provide.

Title 13
SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF AUTHORITY

Sec. 247. If the Commissioner is of the opinion upon examination of other evidence that any domestic or foreign insurance company is in an unsound condition, or that it has failed to comply with the provisions of law or regulations obligatory upon it, or that its condition or method of business is such as to render its proceedings hazardous to the public or to its policyholders, or that its paid-up capital stock, in the case of a domestic stock company, or its available cash assets, in the case of a domestic mutual company, or its security deposits, in the case of a foreign company, is impaired or deficient, or that the margin of solvency required of such company is deficient, the Commissioner is authorized to suspend or revoke all certificates of authority granted to such insurance company, its officers and agents, and no new business shall thereafter be done by such company or for such company by its agent in the Philippines while such suspension, revocation or disability continues or until its authority to do business is restored by the Commissioner. Before restoring such authority, the Commissioner shall require the company concerned to submit to him a business plan showing the company's estimated receipts and disbursements, as well as the basis therefor, for the next succeeding three years. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Title 14
APPOINTMENT OF CONSERVATOR

Sec. 248. If at any time before, or after, the suspension or revocation of the certificate of authority of an insurance company as provided in the preceding title, the Commissioner finds that such company is in a state of continuing inability or unwillingness to maintain a condition of solvency or liquidity deemed adequate to protect the interest of policy holders and creditors, he may appoint a conservator to take charge the assets, liabilities, and the management of such company, collect all moneys and debts due said company and exercise all powers necessary to preserve the assets of said company, reorganize the management thereof, and restore its viability. The said conservator shall have the power to overrule or revoke the actions of the previous management and board of directors of the said company, any provision of law, or of the articles of incorporation or by-laws of the company, to the contrary notwithstanding, and such other powers as the Commissioner shall deem necessary.

The conservator may be another insurance company doing business in the Philippines, by officer or officers of such company, or any other competent and qualified person, firm or corporation. The remuneration of the conservator and other expenses attendant to the conservation shall be borne by the insurance company concerned.

The conservator shall not be subject to any action, claim or demand by, or liability to, any person in respect of anything done or omitted to be done in good faith in the exercise, or in connection with the exercise, of the powers conferred on the conservator.

The conservator appointed shall report and be responsible to the Commissioner until such time as the Commissioner is satisfied that the insurance company can continue to operate on its own and the conservatorship shall likewise be terminated should be Commissioner, on the basis of the report of the conservator or of his own findings, determine that the continuance in business of the insurance company would be hazardous to policy holders and creditors, in which case the provisions of Title 15 shall apply.

Title 15
PROCEEDINGS UPON INSOLVENCY

Sec. 249. Whenever, upon examination or other evidence, it shall be disclosed that the condition of any insurance company doing business in the Philippines is one of insolvency, or that its continuance in business would be hazardous to its policyholders and creditors, the Commissioner shall forthwith order the company to cease and desist from transacting business in the Philippines and shall designate a receiver to immediately take charge of its assets and liabilities, as expeditiously as possible collect and gather all the assets and administer the same for the benefit of its policyholders and creditors, and exercise all the powers necessary for these purposes including, but not limited to, bringing suits and foreclosing mortgages in the name of the insurance company.

The Commissioner shall thereupon determine within thirty days whether the insurance company may be reorganized or otherwise placed in such condition so that it may be permitted to resume business with safety to its policyholders and creditors and shall prescribe the conditions under which such resumption of business shall take place as well as the time for fulfillment of such conditions. In such case, the expenses and fees in the collection and administration of the insurance company shall be determined by the Commissioner and shall be paid out of the assets of such company.

If the Commissioner shall determine and confirm within the said period that the insurance company is solvent, as defined hereunder, or cannot resume business with safety to its policyholders and creditors, he shall, if the public interest requires, order its liquidation, indicate the manner of its liquidation and approve a liquidation plan and implement it immediately. The Commissioner shall designate a competent and qualified person as liquidator who shall take over the functions of the receiver previously designated and, with all convenient speed, reinsure all its outstanding policies, convert the assets of the insurance company to cash, or sell, assign or otherwise dispose of the same to the policyholders, creditors and other parties for the purpose of settling the liabilities or paying the debts of such company and he may, in the name of the company, institute such actions as may be necessary in the appropriate Court to collect and recover accounts and assets of the insurance company, and to do such other acts as may be necessary to complete the liquidation as ordered by the Commissioner.

The provisions of any law to the contrary notwithstanding, the actions of the Commissioner under this Section shall be final and executory, and can be set aside by the Court upon petition by the company and only if there is convincing proof that the action is plainly arbitrary and made in bad faith. The Commissioner, through the Solicitor General, shall then file the corresponding answer reciting the proceeding taken and praying the assistance of the Court in the liquidation of the company. No restraining order or injunction shall be issued by the Court enjoining the Commissioner from implementing his actions under this Section, unless there is convincing proof that the action of the Commissioner is plainly arbitrary and made in bad faith and the petitioner or plaintiff files with the Clerk or Judge of the Court in which the action is pending a bond executed in favor of the Commissioner in an amount to be fixed by the Court. The restraining order or injunction shall be refused or, if granted, shall be dissolved upon filing by the Commissioner, if he so desires, of a bond in an amount twice the amount of the bond of the petitioner or plaintiff conditioned that it will pay the damages which the petition or plaintiff may suffer by the refusal or the dissolution of the injunction. The provisions of Rule 58 of the New Rules of Court insofar as they are applicable shall govern the issuance and dissolution of the restraining order or injunction contemplated in this Section.

All proceedings under this Title shall be given preference in the Courts. The Commissioner shall not be required to pay any fee to any public officer for filing, recording, or in any manner authenticating any paper or instrument relating to the proceedings.

As used in this Title, the term "Insolvency" shall mean the inability of an insurance company to pay its lawful obligations as they fall due in the usual and ordinary course of business as may be shown by its failure to maintain the margin of solvency required under Section 194 of this Code. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1141 and further amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 250. In case of liquidation of an insurance company, after payment of the cost of the proceedings, including reasonable expenses and fees incurred in the liquidation to be allowed by the Court, the Commissioner shall pay all allowed claims against such company, under order of the Court, in accordance with their legal priority.

Sec. 251. The receiver or the liquidator, as the case may be, designated under the provisions of this title shall not be subject to any action, claim or demand by, or liability to, any person in respect of anything done or omitted to be done in good faith in the exercise, or in connection with the exercise, of the powers conferred on such receiver or liquidator.

Title 16
CONSOLIDATION AND MERGER OF INSURANCE COMPANIES

Sec. 252. Upon prior notice to the Commissioner, two or more domestic insurance companies, acting through their respective boards of directors, may negotiate to merge into a single corporation which shall be one of the constituent corporations, or consolidate into a single corporation which shall be a new corporation to be formed by the consolidation. A common agreement of the proposed merger or consolidation shall be drawn up for submission to the stockholders or members of the constituent companies for adoption and approved in accordance with the provisions of the respective by-laws of the constituent companies and all existing laws that may be pertinent.

Sec. 253. Such agreement shall include, aside from the proposed merger or consolidation, provisions relative to the manner of transfer of assets to and assumption of liabilities by the absorbing or acquiring company from the absorbed or dissolved company or companies; the proposed articles of merger or consolidation and by-laws of the surviving or acquiring company; the corporate name to be adopted which should not be that of any other existing company transacting similar business or one so similar as to be calculated to mislead the public; the rights of the stockholders or members of the absorbed or dissolved companies; date of effectivity of the merger or consolidation; and such particulars as may be necessary to explain and make manifest the objects and purposes of the absorbing or acquiring company.

Sec. 254. Upon execution of such agreement to merge or consolidate by and between or among the boards of directors of the constituent companies, notice thereof shall be mailed immediately to their policyholders and creditors. The company or companies to be absorbed or dissolved shall discharge all its accrued liabilities; otherwise, such liabilities shall, with the consent of its creditors, be transferred to and assumed by the absorbing or acquiring company, or such liabilities be reinsured by the latter. In the case of such policies as are subject to cancellation by the company or companies to be absorbed or dissolved, same may be cancelled pursuant to the terms thereof in lieu of such transfer, assumption, or reinsurance.

Sec. 255. Upon approval or adoption in the meetings of the stockholders or members called for the purpose in each of the constituent companies of the agreement to merge or consolidate, all stockholders or members dissenting or objecting to merger or consolidation shall be paid the value of their shares by the company concerned in accordance with the by-laws thereof.

Sec. 256. Upon the approval or adoption of the agreement to merge or consolidate by the stockholders or members of the constituent companies, the corresponding articles of merger or of consolidation shall be duly executed by the presidents and attested by the corporate secretaries and shall bear the corporate seals of the merging or consolidating companies setting forth:

      (1) The plan of merger or the plan of consolidation;

      (2) As to each corporation, the number of shares outstanding, or in case of mutual corporations, the number of members; and

      (3) As to each corporation, the number of shares or members voted for and against such plan respectively. Thereafter, a certified copy of such articles of merger or consolidation, together with a certificate of approval or adoption by the stockholders or members of such articles of merger or consolidation, verified by affidavits of such officers and under the seal of the constituent companies, shall be submitted to the Commissioner, together with such other papers or documents which the Commissioner may require, for his consideration.

Sec. 257. The articles of merger or of consolidation, signed and verified as hereinabove required, shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission for its examination and approval.

Sec. 258. Upon receipt from the Securities and Exchange Commission of the certificate of merger or of consolidation, the constituent companies shall surrender to the Commissioner their respective certificates of authority to transact insurance business. The absorbing or surviving company in case of merger, or the newly formed company in case of consolidation, shall immediately file with the commissioner the corresponding application for issuance of a new certificate of authority to transact insurance business, together with a certified copy of the certificate of merger or of consolidation, and of the certificate of increase of stocks, if there is any, issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Sec. 259. Nothing in this title shall be construed to enlarge the powers of the absorbing or surviving company in case of merger, or the newly formed company in case of consolidation, except those conferred by the certificate of merger or of consolidation and the articles of merger of consolidation, or the amended articles of incorporation, as registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Sec. 260. No director, officer, or stockholder of any such constituent companies shall receive any fee, commission, compensation, or other valuable consideration whatsoever, directly or indirectly, or in any manner aiding, promoting or assisting in such merger or consolidation.

Sec. 261. The merger of consolidation of companies under, this Code shall be subject to the provisions of the Corporation Law, and, in those cases specified in Republic Act No. 5455, as amended, be further subject to the provisions of said law.

Title 17
MUTUALIZATION OF STOCK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES

Sec. 262. Any domestic stock life insurance company doing business in the Philippines may convert itself into an incorporated mutual life insurer. To that end it may provide and carry out a plan for the acquisition of the outstanding shares of its capital stock for the benefit of its policyholders, or any class or classes of its policyholders, by complying with the requirements of this chapter.

Sec. 263. Such plan shall include appropriate proceedings for amending the insurer's articles of incorporation to give effect to the acquisition, by said insurer, for the benefit of its policyholders or any class or classes thereof, of the outstanding shares of its capital stock and the conversion of the insurer from a stock corporation into a non-stock corporation for the benefit of its members. The members of such non-stock corporation shall be the policyholders from time to time of the class or classes for whose benefit the stock of the insurer was acquired, and the policyholders of such other class or classes as may be specified in such corporation's articles of incorporation as they may be amended from time to time. Such plan shall be:

      (1) Adopted by a vote of a majority of the directors;

      (2) Approved by the vote of the holders of at least a majority of the outstanding shares at a special meeting of shareholders called for that purpose, or by the written consent of such sharesholders;

      (3) Submitted to the Commissioner and approved by him in writing;

      (4) Approved by a majority vote of all the policyholders of the class or classes for whose benefit the stock is to be acquired voting at an election by the policyholders called for that purpose, subject to the provisions of section two hundred sixty-five. The terms "policyholder" or "policyholders" as used in this chapter shall be deemed to mean the person or persons insured under an individual policy of life insurance, or of health and accident insurance, or of any combination of life, health and accident insurance. They shall also include the person or persons to whom any annuity or pure endowment is presently or prospectively payable by the terms of an individual annuity or pure endowment contract, except where the policy or contract declares some other person to be the owner or holder thereof, in which case such other person shall be deemed policyholder. In any case where a policy or contract names two or more persons as joint insured, payees, owners or holders thereof, the persons so named shall be deemed collectively to be one policyholder for the purpose of this chapter. In any case where a policy or contract shall have been assigned by assignment absolute on its face to an assignee other than the insurer, and such assignment shall have been filed at the principal office of the insurer at least thirty days prior to the date of any election or meeting referred to in this chapter, then such assignee shall be deemed at such election or meeting to be the policyholder. For the purpose of this chapter the terms "policyholder" and "policyholders" include the employer to whom, or a president, secretary or other executive officer of any corporation or association to which a master group policy has been issued, but exclude the holders of certificates or policies issued under or in connection with a master group policy. Beneficiaries under unmatured contracts shall not as such be deemed to be policyholders;

      (5) Filed with the Commissioner after having been approved as provided in this section.

Sec. 264. The Commissioner shall examine the plan submitted to him under the provisions of sub-paragraph three of section two hundred sixty-three. He shall not approve such plan unless in his opinion the rights and interest of the insurer, its policyholders and shareholders are protected nor unless he is satisfied that the plan will be fair and equitable in its operation.

Sec. 265. The election prescribed by sub-paragraph four of section two hundred sixty-three shall be called by the board of directors or the president, and every policyholder of the class or classes for whose benefit the stock is to be acquired, whose insurance shall have been in force for at least one year prior to such election shall have one vote, regardless of the number of policies or amount of insurance he holds, and regardless of whether such policies are policies of life insurance or policies of health and accident insurance or annuity contracts. Notice of such election shall be given to policyholders entitled to vote by mail from the principal office of such insurer at least thirty days prior to the date set for such election, in a sealed envelope, postage prepaid, addressed to each such policyholder at his last known address.

Voting shall be by one of the following methods:

      (1) At a meeting of such policyholders, held pursuant to such notice, by ballot in person or by proxy.

      (2) If not by the method described in the preceding sub-paragraph, then by mail pursuant to a procedure and on forms to be prescribed by such plan.

Such election shall be conducted under the direction and supervision of three impartial and disinterested inspectors appointed by the insurer and approved by the Commissioner. In case any person appointed as inspector fails to appear at such meeting or fails or refuses to act at such election, the vacancy, if occurring in advance of the convening of the meeting or in advance of the opening of the mail vote, may be filled in the manner prescribed for the appointment of inspectors and, if occurring at the meeting or during the canvass of the mail vote, may be filled by the person acting as chairman of said meeting or designated for that purpose in such plan. The decision, act or certificate of a majority of the inspectors shall be effective in all respects as the decision, act or certificate of all. The inspectors of election shall determine the number of policyholders, the voting power of each, the policyholders represented at the meeting or voting by mail, the existence of a quorum and the authencity, validity and effect of proxies. They shall receives votes, hear and determine all challenges and questions in any way arising in connection with the right to vote, count and tabulate all votes, determine the result, and do such other acts as are proper to conduct the vote with fairness to all policyholders. The inspectors of election shall, before commencing performance of their duties, subscribe to and file with the insurer and with the Commissioner on oath that they, and each of them, will perform their duties impartially, in good faith, to the best of their ability and as expeditiously as in practicable. On the request of the insurer, the Commissioner, a policyholder or his proxy, the inspectors shall make a report in writing of any challenge or question or matter determined by them and execute a certificate of any fact found by them. They shall also certify the result of such vote to the insurer and to the Commissioner. Any report or certificate made by them shall be prima facie evidence of facts stated therein. All necessary expenses incurred in connection with such election shall be paid by the insurer. For the purpose of this section, a quorum shall consist of five per centum of the policyholders of such insurer entitled to vote at such election.

Sec. 266. In carrying out any such plan, the insurer may acquire any shares of its own stock by gift, bequest or purchase. Any shares so acquired shall, unless as a result of such acquisition all of the shares of the insurer shall have been acquired, be acquired in trust for the policyholders of the class or classes for whose benefit the plan provides that the stock of the insurer shall be acquired as hereinafter provided. Such shares shall be assigned and transferred on the books of such insurer and approved by the Commissioner. Such trustees shall hold such stock in trust until all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of such insurer have been acquired, but for not longer than thirty years with such extensions of not more than five years each as may be granted by the Commissioner. Such extensions may be granted by the Commissioner if the plan so provides and if in his opinion the plan of acquisition of all of such stock can be completed within a reasonable period. Such trustees shall vote such stock at all corporate meetings at which stockholders have the right to vote. When all the outstanding shares of capital stock of such insurer have been acquired, all said shares shall be cancelled, the certificate of amendment of the insurer's articles of incorporation giving effect thereto shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of the Corporation Law, and the insurer shall become a non-stock corporation for the profit of its members and such trust shall thereupon terminate. Thereafter such corporation shall be conducted for the mutual benefit, ratably, of its policyholders of the class or classes for whose benefit the stock was acquired and shall have power to issue non-assessable policies on a reserve basis subject to all provisions of law applicable to incorporated life insurers issuing nonassessable policies on a reserve basis. Policies so issued may be upon the basis of full or partial participation therein as agreed between the insurer and the insured.

Upon the termination of any such voting trust, either in accordance with its terms or as hereinabove provided, such plan of mutualization shall terminate, unless theretofore completed. Upon such termination, unless the plan of mutualization provides for the disposition of the shares acquired by the insurer under such plan or for the disposition of the proceeds thereof, the shares held by such trustees shall be disposed of in accordance with an order of the court of competent jurisdiction in the judicial district in which is located the principal office of such insurer, made upon a verified petition of the Commissioner.

Sec. 267. Any such plan of mutualization may provide for the creation of a voting trust under a trust agreement for the holding and voting by three or more trustees of any portion or all of the shares of the insurer not required upon the adoption of such plan. The voting trustees shall be named in accordance with such plan or, if no provision is made therein for the naming of such trustees, then by the insurer. The voting trust agreement and voting trustees shall be subject to the approval of the Commissioner. Any or all of the trustees under such voting trust agreement may be the same person or persons as any or all of the trustees referred to in section two hundred sixty-six. Such voting trust agreement shall provide that in the event of acquisition by the insurer of any of the shares of stock held thereunder in accordance with the provisions of the plan, such shares so acquired together with the voting rights thereof shall be transferred by the trustees named under the provisions of this section to the trustees named under the provisions of section two hundred sixty-six. Any voting trust agreement created pursuant to the provisions of this section may be made irrevocable for not longer than thirty years and thereafter until the termination of the trust provided for in section two hundred sixty-six. The trust created pursuant to the provisions of this section shall terminate in any event upon termination of the trust provided for in section two hundred sixty-six. Upon the termination of the trust created pursuant to the provisions of this section, any shares held in such trust shall revert to the persons entitled thereto by law.

Sec. 268. Every payment for the acquisition of any shares of the capital stock of such insurer, the purchase price of which is not fixed by such plan, shall be subject to the prior approval of the Commissioner. Neither such plan, nor any such payment, may be approved by the Commissioner unless he finds that the rights and interests of the insurer, its policyholders, and shareholders are protected.

Sec. 269. The trustees referred to in section two hundred sixty-six shall file with such insurer and with the Commissioner a verified acceptance of their appointments and verified declarations that they will faithfully discharge their duties as such trustees. All dividends and other sums received by said trustees on the shares held by them, after paying the necessary expenses of executing their trust, shall be immediately repaid to such insurer for the benefit of all who are, or may become, policyholders of such insurance of the class or classes for whose benefit the stock of such insurer was acquired and entitled to participate in the profits thereof and shall be added to and become part of the assets of such insurer.

Sec. 269-A. If, at any time within the period provided in the plan for the acquisition of the outstanding shares of stock of the insurer, ninety percent thereof has already been acquired and transferred to the trustees under the plan, the insurer by a vote of a majority of the directors may determine to make an offer, with the permission of the Commissioner and subject to such requirement as he may specify, to acquire by purchase all of the shares not theretofore acquired under the plan, at a specified price which the insurer considers to be their fair value as of the date of making such offer.

If the offer to acquire is permitted by the Commissioner, the insurer shall make a written offer by registered mail to each shareholder whose shares have not theretofore been acquired under the plan or otherwise, offering to acquire all his shares at such price if accepted in writing within thirty days after the mailing of such offer. Any shareholder accepting such offer, within the time therefor shall, within sixty days after his acceptance, transfer to the insurer the certificates representing such shares and, upon doing so, shall be paid by the insurer the amount of such offer for his shares. Any share so acquired shall be assigned and transferred to the trustees under the plan and held by them as shares acquired pursuant to the plan.

Each shareholder who does not accept such offer to acquire his shares within the time stated in such offer for acceptance thereof shall within fifteen days after the expiration of such offer apply to the Secretary of Finance for determination of the fair value of his shares as of the date of making such offer. The Secretary of Finance may himself, after due notice and hearing, determine upon the evidence received the fair value of the shares as of the date of making such offer, or appoint three impartial and disinterested persons to appraise the fair value of such shares with such direction as he shall deem proper and necessary to expedite the proceedings. Upon completion of the appraisal proceedings, the appraisers shall file with the Secretary of Finance their report in writing stating the fair value of such shares as of the date of the making of such offer and setting forth their findings in support of such statement. The appraisers shall furnish each party to the proceedings a copy of their appraisal report, and within ten days after receipt thereof any such party may signify his objection, if any, to the report or move for the approval thereof. Upon the expiration of the period of ten days referred to above, the report shall be set for hearing, after which the Secretary of Finance shall issue an order adopting, modifying or rejecting the report in whole or in part or he may receive further evidence or may recommit it with instructions. Whenever the Secretary of Finance shall determine in any manner, as aforesaid, the fair value of such shares, he may also determine the terms of payment thereof by the insurer. The expenses incidental to the proceedings including charges of the appraisers, if any, shall be paid equally by the insurer and the shareholder.

The findings of the Secretary of Finance on all questions of fact raised at the hearing of the application for determination of the fair value of such shares shall be conclusive upon all parties to the proceedings. The order of the Secretary of Finance determining the fair value of the shares and the terms of payment thereof shall have the force and effect of a judgment which shall be appealable on any question of law. Such order shall become final and executory fifteen days after receipt thereof by the parties to the proceedings.

Upon any such order becoming final and from which no appeal is pending, or when the time to appeal therefrom has expired, each shareholder party to the proceedings shall transfer his shares to the insurer and surrender to the said insurer the certificates representing such shares and the insurer shall make payment therefor as provided in such order. Any shares so acquired by the insurer shall be assigned and transferred to the trustees and held by them as shares acquired pursuant to the plan.

Any shareholder who does not apply to the Secretary of Finance in the manner and within the time hereinbefore prescribed shall be deemed to have accepted the offer referred to above, effective, however, upon the expiration of the time hereinabove prescribed for making such application, and such shareholder's time for accepting such offer shall, for that purpose only, be deemed to have been extended accordingly.

Any offer to acquire shares made pursuant to this section shall, except as otherwise provided herein, be irrevocable until all proceedings upon such offer have been completed or all shares have otherwise been earlier acquired by the insurer.

Any shareholder who has expressly or impliedly accepted the plan or the offer to acquire his shares not theretofore acquired under the plan, and any shareholder who has rejected such plan or such offer and has applied, as aforesaid, to the Secretary of Finance for a determination of the fair value of his shares subsequent to which an agreement has been reached or a final order issued fixing such fair value but who fails to surrender his certificates for cancellation upon payment of the amount to which he is entitled, may be compelled to do so by an order of the Secretary of Finance for that purpose and such order may provide that upon failure of such shareholder to surrender such certificates for cancellation such order shall stand in lieu of such surrender and cancellation. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1280).

Sec. 270. Such insurer, after mutualization, shall be a continuation of the original insurer, and such mutualization shall not affect such insurer's certificate of authority nor existing suits, rights or contracts except as provided in said plan for the acquisition of the outstanding shares of the capital stock of such insurer, approved as provided in this chapter. Such insurer, after mutualization, shall exercise all the rights and powers and shall perform all the duties conferred or imposed by law upon insurers writing the classes of insurance written by it, and to protect rights and contracts existing prior to mutualization, subject to the effect of said plan. The board of directors of such insurer, prior to mutualization, may adopt amendments to its by-laws to take effect upon mutualization.

Sec. 271. (1) An annual meeting of members shall be held at ten o'clock in the morning of the fourth Tuesday of March of each year at the principal office of the insurer, unless a different time or place be provided in the by-laws.

(2) Special meetings of the members, for any purpose or purposes whatsoever, may be called at any time by the president, or by the board of directors, or by one or more members holding not less than one-fifth of the voting power of such insurer, or by such other officers or persons as the by-laws authorize.

(3) Notice of all meetings of members whether annual or special shall be given in writing to the members entitled to vote by the secretary, or an assistant secretary, or other person charged with that duty, or if there be no such officer, or in case of his neglect or refusal, by any director or member. At the option of the insurer such notice may be imprinted on premium notices of receipts or on both.

A notice may be given by such insurer to any member either personally, or by mail, or other means of written communication, charges prepaid, addressed to such member at his address appearing on the books of the insurer, or given by him to the insurer for the purpose of notice. If a member gives no address, notice shall be deemed to have been given him if sent by mail or other means of written communication addressed to the place where the principal office of the insurer is situated, or if published at least once in some newspaper of general circulation in the place in which said office is located.

Notice of any meeting of members shall be sent to each member entitled thereto not less than seven days before such meeting, unless the by-laws provide otherwise.

Notice of any meeting of members shall specify the place, the day and the hour of the meeting and the general nature of the business to be transacted.

Notice of an annual meeting to be held at the time and place specified in sub-paragraph one of this section shall be sufficiently given if published at least once in each of four successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the place in which the principal office of such insurer is located, and if so published no other notice of such meeting shall be required.

(4) The presence in person or by proxy of five per centum of the members entitled to vote at any meeting shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, unless otherwise provided by the by-laws.

(5) Each such member shall have one vote at any meeting of members regardless of the number of policies or the amount of insurance that such member holds and regardless of whether such policies are policies of life insurance, or of health and accident insurance, or both. Any member entitled to vote shall have the right to do so either in person or by an agent or agents authorized by a written proxy executed by such person or his duly authorized agent and filed with the secretary of such insurer.

(6) The directors of the insurer in office at the time the insurer is mutualized as provided in this chapter shall continue in office until the first annual meeting of members. At the first annual meeting of members and at each annual meeting thereafter directors shall be elected by the members for the term or terms authorized by this chapter.

(7) The articles of incorporation or the bay-laws may provide that the directors may be divided into two or more classes whose terms of office shall expire at different times, but no terms shall continue longer than six years. In the absence of such provisions, each director, except members of the board of directors at the time the insurer is mutualized, shall be elected for a term of one year. All directors shall hold office for a term for which they are elected and until their successors are elected and qualified. A director may, but need not be a member or policyholder of the insurer of which he is acting as director. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by a majority of the remaining directors, though less than a quorum, and each director so elected shall hold office until the next annual meeting.

(8) All insurers mutualized under the provisions of this chapter shall be subject to all other applicable provisions of this Code and of the Corporation Law.

Sec. 272. The provisions of Commonwealth Act No. 83, otherwise known as the Securities Act, as amended, shall not apply to any of the following:

      (a) Shares of the capital stock of such insurer acquired as provided in section two hundred sixty-six and assigned and transferred to the trustees as is provided in said section, and the assignment and transfer of said shares as so provided;

      (b) Any certificate or other instrument issued to a policyholder of such mutualized insurer conferring or evidencing membership in such mutualized insurer or conferring or evidencing such member's right to participate in the profits or share in the assets of such mutualized insurer by the virtue of his membership therein, and the issuance of such certificate or other instrument;

      (c) The plan for the acquisition of the outstanding shares of the capital stock of such insurer authorized by the provisions of this chapter, the submission of said plan to the Commissioner and to the policyholders of such insurer as provided in this chapter, and the approval and carrying out of said plan or any part thereof in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

Title 18
WITHDRAWAL OF FOREIGN INSURANCE COMPANIES

Sec. 273. A foreign insurance company doing business in the Philippines, upon payment of the fee hereinafter prescribed and surrender to the Commissioner of its certificate of authority, may apply to withdraw from the Philippines. Such application shall be duly executed in writing, accompanied by evidence of due authority for such execution, properly acknowledged.

Sec. 274. The Commissioner shall publish the application for withdrawal daily for a period of one week in two newspapers of general circulation in the City of Manila, one in English and the other in Pilipino. The expenses of such publication shall be paid by the insurance company filing such application.

Sec. 275. Every foreign insurance company desiring to withdraw from the Philippines shall, prior to such withdrawal, discharge its liabilities to policyholders and creditors in this country. In case of its policies insuring residents of the Philippines, it shall cause the primary liabilities under such policies to be reinsured and assumed by another insurance company authorized to transact business in the Philippines. In the case of such policies as are subject to cancellation by the withdrawing company, it may cancel such policies pursuant to the terms thereof in lieu of such reinsurance and assumption of liabilities.

Sec. 276. The Commissioner shall make an examination of the books and records of the withdrawing company, and if, upon such examination, the Commissioner finds that the insurer has no outstanding liabilities to residents of the Philippines, it shall cancel the withdrawing company's certificate of authority, if unexpired, and shall permit the insurer to withdraw. The cost and expenses of all such examination shall be paid as prescribed in section four hundred seventeen.

Sec. 277. Upon the failure of such withdrawing insurance company or its agents in the Philippines to pay the expenses of such publication within thirty days after the presentation of the bill therefor, the Commissioner shall collect such fee from the deposit furnished in accordance with the provisions of section one hundred ninety-one.

Sec. 278. A foreign life insurance company that withdraws from the Philippines shall be considered a "servicing insurance company" if its business transactions are confined to accepting periodic premium payments from, or granting policy loans and paying cash surrender values of outstanding policies to, or reviving lapsed policies of, Philippine policyholders, and such other related services.

Sec. 279. No company shall act as a servicing insurance company until after it shall have obtained a special certification of authority to act as such from the Commissioner upon application therefor and payment by the company of the fees hereinafter prescribed. Such certificate shall expire on the last day of June of each year and shall be renewed annually, while the company continues to service its policyholders, and to comply with all the applicable provisions of law and regulations.

Title 19
PROFESSIONAL REINSURERS

Sec. 280. Except as otherwise provided in this Code, no person, partnership, association or corporation shall transact any business in the Philippines as a professional reinsurer until it shall have obtained a certificate of authority for that purpose from the Commissioner upon the application therefor and payment by such person, partnership, association or corporation of the fees hereinafter prescribed. As used in this Code, the term "professional reinsurer" shall mean any person, partnership, association or corporation that transacts solely and exclusively reinsurance business in the Philippines.

The Commissioner may refuse to issue a certificate of authority to any such person, partnership, association or corporation if, in his judgment, such refusal will best promote public interest. No such certificate of authority shall be granted to any such person, partnership, association or corporation unless and until the Commissioner shall have satisfied himself by such examination as he may make and such evidence as he may require that such person, partnership, association or corporation is qualified by the laws of the Philippines to transact business therein as a professional reinsurer.

Before issuing such certificate of authority of the Commissioner must be satisfied that the name of the applicant is not that of any other known company transacting insurance or reinsurance business in the Philippines, or a name so similar as to be calculated to mislead the public.

Such certificate of authority shall expire on the last day of June of each year and shall be renewed annually if such person, partnership, association, or corporation is continuing to comply with provisions of this Code, or the circulars, instructions, rulings, or decisions of the Commissioner and such other pertinent law, rules and regulations.

Every such person, partnership, association, or corporation receiving such certificate of authority shall be subject to the provisions of this Code and other related laws, and to the jurisdiction and supervision of the Commissioner.

Sec. 281. Any person, partnership, association, or corporation authorized to transact solely reinsurance business must have a paid-up capital stock of at least ten million pesos, twenty-five per centum of which must be invested in securities satisfactory to the Commissioner, consisting of bonds or other evidences of debt of the Government of the Philippines or its political subdivisions or instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, including the Central Bank of the Philippines, and deposited with the Commissioner, and the remaining seventy-five per centum in such other securities as may be allowed and permitted by the Commissioner, which securities shall at all times be maintained free from any lien or encumbrance: Provided, That reinsurers already doing business as such in the Philippines shall comply with the requirement of this section by increasing their respective capital as herein provided not later than December thirty-one, nineteen hundred eighty: Provided, Further, That the provisions of this chapter applicable to insurance companies shall so far as practicable be likewise applicable to professional reinsurers. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Title 20
HOLDING COMPANIES

Sec. 282. As used in this title, the following terms shall have the respective meanings hereinafter set forth unless the context shall otherwise require:

      (a) "Person" means an individual, partnership, firm, association, corporation, trust, any similar entity or any combination of the foregoing acting in concert;

      (b) "Control", including the terms "controlling", "controlled by" and "under common control with", means the possession directly or indirectly of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person, whether through the ownership of voting securities by a contract other than a commercial contract for goods or non-management services or otherwise. Subject to section two hundred eight-four, control shall be presumed to exist if any person directly or indirectly owns, controls or holds with the power to vote forty per centum or more of the voting securities of any other person: Provided, That no person shall be deemed to control another person solely by reason of his being an officer or director of such other person;

      (c) "Holding company" means any person who directly or indirectly controls any authorized insurer;

      (d) "Controlled insurer" means an authorized insurer controlled directly or indirectly by a holding company;

      (e) "Controlled person" means any person, other than a controlled insurer, who is controlled directly or indirectly by a holding company;

      (f) "Holding company system" means a holding company together with its controlled insurers and controlled persons.

Sec. 283. Notwithstanding paragraph (b) of section two hundred eighty-two, the Commissioner may determine after notice and opportunity to be heard, that a person exercises directly or indirectly either alone or pursuant to an agreement with one or more other persons such a controlling influence over the management or policies of an authorized insurer as to make it necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of policyholders or stockholders of the insurer that the person be deemed to control the insurer.

Sec. 284. The Commissioner may determine upon application that any person, either alone or pursuant to agreement with one or more other persons, does not or will not upon the taking of some proposed action control another person. The filing of an application hereunder in good faith by any person shall relieve the applicant from any obligation or liability imposed by this title with respect to the subject of the application, except as contained in section two hundred ninety-four, until the Commissioner has acted upon the application. Within thirty days or such further period as he may prescribe, the Commissioner may prospectively revoke or modify his determination, after notice and opportunity to be heard, whenever in his judgment revocation or modification is consistent with his title.

Sec. 285. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this title, the following shall not be deemed holding companies:

      (a) authorized insurers or reinsurers or their subsidiaries;

      (b) the Government of the Philippines, or any political subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, or any corporation which is wholly owned directly or indirectly by one or more of the foregoing.

The Commissioner may conditionally or unconditionally exempt any specified person or class of persons from any of the obligations or liabilities imposed under this title, if and to the extent he finds the exemption necessary to appropriate in the public interest or not adverse to the interests of policyholders or stockholders and consistent with the purposes of this title.

Sec. 286. (1) Every person who on the date this Code takes effect is a controlled insurer and every person who thereafter becomes a controlled insurer, shall, within sixty days thereafter, or within thirty days after becoming a controlled insurer, whichever is later, register with the Commissioner. Such registration shall be amended within thirty days following any change in the identity of its holding company. The Commissioner may grant one or more reasonable extensions of the time to register.

(2) Every registrant shall furnish the Commissioner with the following information concerning its holding company: (a) a copy of its charter or articles of incorporation and its by-laws, (b) the identities of its principal shareholders, officers, directors and controlled persons, and (c) information as to its capital structure and financial condition, and a description of its principal business activities.

Sec. 287. Every controlled insurer shall file with the Commissioner such reports or material as he may direct for the purpose of disclosing information concerning the operations of persons within the holding company system which may materially affect the operations, management or financial condition of the insurer.

Sec. 288. Every holding company and every controlled person within a holding company system shall be subject to examination by order of the Commissioner if he has cause to believe that the operations of such persons may materially affect the operations, management or financial condition of any controlled insurer with the system and that he is unable to obtain relevant information from such controlled insurer. The grounds relied upon by the Commissioner for such examination shall be stated in his order, which order shall be subject to judicial review only at the instance of the person sought to be examined. Such examination shall be confined to matters specified in the order. The cost of such examination shall be assessed against the person examined and no portion thereof shall thereafter be reimbursed to it directly or indirectly by the controlled insurer.

Sec. 289. The Commissioner shall keep the contents of each report made pursuant to this title and any information obtained by him in connection therewith confidential and shall not make the same public without the prior written consent of the controlled insurer to which it pertains unless the Commissioner after notice and an opportunity to be heard shall determine that the interests of policyholders, stockholders or the public will be served by the publication thereof. In any action or proceeding by the Commissioner against the person examined or any other person within the same holding company system a report of such examination published by him shall be admissible as evidence of the facts stated therein.

Sec. 290. Transactions within a holding company system to which a controlled insurer is a party shall be subject to the following:

      (a) The terms shall be fair and equitable;

      (b) charges or fees for services performed shall be reasonable;

      (c) expenses incurred and payments received shall be allocated to the insurer on an equitable basis in conformity with customary insurance accounting practices consistently applied.

The books, accounts and records of each party to all such transactions shall be maintained as to clearly and accurately disclose the nature and details of the transactions including such accounting information as is necessary to support the reasonableness of the charges or fees to the respective parties.

Sec. 291. The prior written approval of the Commissioner shall be required for the following transactions between a controlled insurer and any person in its holding company system: sales, purchases, exchanges, loans or extensions of credit, or investments, involving five per centum or more of the insurer's admitted assets as of the thirty-first day of December next preceding.

Sec. 292. The following transactions between a controlled insurer and any person in its holding company system may not be entered into unless the insurer has notified the Commissioner in writing of its intention to enter into any such transaction at least thirty days prior thereto, or such shorter period as he may permit, and he has not disapproved it within such period:

      (a) sales, purchases, exchanges, loans or extensions of credit, or investments, involving more than one-half of one per centum but less than five per centum of the insurer's admitted assets as of the thirty-first day of December next preceding;

      (b) reinsurance treaties or agreements;

      (c) rendering of services on a regular or systematic basis; or

      (d) any material transaction, specified by regulation, which the Commissioner determines may adversely affect the interest of the insurer's policyholders or stockholders or of the public.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize or permit any transaction which, in the case of a non-controlled insurer, would be otherwise contrary to law.

Sec. 293. The Commissioner, in reviewing transactions pursuant to sections two hundred ninety-one and two hundred ninety-two, shall consider whether the transactions comply with the standard set forth in section two hundred ninety and whether they may adversely affect the interests of policyholders. This section shall not apply to transactions subject to other sections of this Code which impose notice or approval requirements greater than those prescribed by this title.

Sec. 294. (1) No person, other than an authorized insurer, shall acquire control of any domestic insurer, whether by purchase of its securities or otherwise, except (a) after twenty days written notice to its insurer or such shorter period as the Commissioner may permit, of its intention to acquire control, and (b) with the prior written approval of the Commissioner.

(2) The Commissioner shall disapprove the acquisition of control of a domestic insurer if he determines, after notice and an opportunity to be heard, that such action is reasonably necessary to protect the interest of the people of this country. The following shall be the only factors to be considered by him in reaching the foregoing determination:

      (a) the financial condition of the acquiring person or and the insurer;

      (b) the trustworthiness of the acquiring person or any of its officers or directors;

      (c) a plan for the proper and effective conduct of the insurer's operations;

      (d) the source of the funds or assets for the acquisition;

      (e) the fairness of any exchange of stock, assets, cash or other consideration for the stock or assets to be received;

      (f) whether the effect of the acquisition may be substantially to lessen competition in any line of commerce in insurance or to tend to create a monopoly therein; and

      (g) whether the acquisition is likely to be hazardous or prejudicial to the insurer's policyholders or stockholders.

(3) The following conditions affecting any controlled insurer, regardless of when such control has been acquired, are violations of this title: (a) the controlling person or any of its officers or directors have demonstrated untrustworthiness; and (b) the effect of retention of control may be substantially to lessen competition in any line of commerce in insurance in this country or to tend to create a monopoly therein. If, after notice and an opportunity to be heard, the Commissioner determines that any of the foregoing violations exists, he shall reduce his findings to writing and shall issue an order based thereon and cause the same to be served upon the insurer and upon all persons affected thereby directing any person found to be in violation thereof to take appropriate action to cure such violation. Upon the failure of any such person to comply with such order, section two hundred ninety-eight shall become applicable.

(4) The Commissioner may require the submission of such information as he deems necessary to determine whether any acquisition or retention of control complies with this title and may require, as a condition of approval of such acquisition or retention of control, that all or any portion of such information be disclosed to the insurer's stockholders.

(5) Unless subject to registration under section two hundred eighty-six or unless acquisition of its control is subject to paragraphs one and two hereof, every authorized insurer shall, on or before the first day of July, nineteen hundred seventy-five, or within thirty days after any event requiring notice hereunder, whichever is later, notify the Commissioner in writing of the identity of any person whom the insurer then knows or has reason to believe controls or has taken any action, other than preliminary negotiations or discussion, to acquire control of the insurer.

Sec. 295. (1) Notwithstanding the control of an authorized insurer by any person, the officers and directors of the insurer shall not thereby be relieved of any obligation or liability to which they would otherwise be subject by law, and the insurer shall be managed so as to assure its separate operating identity consistent with this title.

(2) Nothing herein shall preclude an authorized insurer from having or sharing a common management or cooperative or joint use of personnel, property or services with one or more other persons under arrangements meeting the standards of section two hundred ninety.

Sec. 296. To the extent that any information or material is set forth in forms or other matter on file with any government agency or in a registration form filed with the Commissioner by another person within the same holding company system, the controlled insurer may comply with the registration or reporting requirements of this title by referring in its registration form or report to such other filed matter and attaching a copy thereof certified by the insurer as a true and complete copy, to such registration form or report or, if such other filed matter is on file with the Commissioner, incorporating such matter by reference.

Sec. 297. No holding company or controlled person shall directly or indirectly or through another person do or cause to be done for or in behalf of the controlled insurer any act intended to affect the insurance operations of the insurer which, if done by the insurer, would violate any provision of this Code.

Sec. 298. In addition to any other penalty provided by law, the Commissioner may, upon the willful failure of any person within a holding company system to comply with this title or any regulation or order promulgated hereunder:

      (a) proceed under title fourteen or title fifteen, Chapter III, of this Code with respect to insurer within the holding company system; or

      (b) revoke or refuse to renew the authority to do business in this country of an insurer within the holding company system or refuse to issue such authority to any other insurer in the system; or

      (c) direct that, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, such person forfeit to the people of this country a sum not exceeding five hundred pesos for a first violation and two thousand five hundred pesos for any subsequent violation. An additional sum not exceeding two thousand five hundred pesos shall be imposed for each month during which any such violation shall continue.

Chapter IV
SALES AGENCIES AND TECHNICAL SERVICES

Title 1
INSURANCE AGENTS AND INSURANCE BROKERS

Sec. 299. No insurance company doing business in the Philippines, nor any agent  thereof, shall pay any commission or other compensation to any person for services in obtaining insurance, unless such person shall have first procured from the Commissioner a license to act as an insurance agent of such company or as an insurance broker as hereinafter provided.

No person shall act as an insurance agent or as an insurance broker in the solicitation or procurement of applications for insurance, or receive for services in obtaining insurance, any commission or other compensation from any insurance company doing business in the Philippines, or any agent thereof, without first procuring a license to act from the Commissioner, which must be renewed annually on the first day of January, or within six months thereafter. Such license shall be issued by the Commissioner only upon the written application of the person desiring it, such application if for a license to act as insurance agent, being approved and countersigned by the company such person desires to represent, and shall be upon a form prescribed by the Commissioner giving such information as he may require, and upon payment of the corresponding fee hereinafter prescribed. The Commissioner shall satisfy himself as to competence and trustworthiness of the applicant and shall have the right to refuse to issue or renew and to suspend or revoke any such license in his discretion. No such license shall be valid after the thirtieth day of June of the year following its issuance unless it is renewed. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 300. Any person who for compensation solicits or obtains insurance on behalf of any insurance company or transmits for a person other than himself an application for a policy or contract of insurance to or from such company or offers or assumes to act in the negotiating of such insurance shall be an insurance agent within the intent of this section and shall thereby become liable to all the duties, requirements, liabilities and penalties to which an insurance agent is subject.

Sec. 301. Any person who for any compensation, commission or other thing of value acts or aids in any manner in soliciting, negotiating or procuring the making of any insurance contract or in placing risk or taking out insurance, on behalf of an insured other than himself, shall be an insurance broker within the intent of this Code, and shall thereby become liable to all the duties, requirements, liabilities and penalties to which an insurance broker is subject.

Sec. 302. Every applicant for an insurance broker's license shall file with the application and shall thereafter maintain in force while so licensed, a bond in favor of the people of the Republic of the Philippines executed by a company authorized to become surety upon official recognizances, stipulations, bonds and undertakings. The bond shall be in such amount as may be fixed by the Commissioner, but in no case less than one hundred thousand pesos, and shall be conditioned upon full accounting and due payment to the person entitled thereto of funds coming into the broker's possession through insurance transactions under license. The bond shall remain in force until released by the Commissioner, or until cancelled by the surety. Without prejudice to any liability previously incurred thereunder, the surety may cancel the bond on thirty days advance written notice to both the broker and the Commissioner.

Upon approval of the application, the applicant must also file two errors and omissions (professional liability or professional indemnity) policies issued separately by two insurance companies authorized to do business in the Philippines, satisfactory to the Commissioner to indemnify the applicant against any claim or claims for breach of duty as insurance broker which may be made against him by reason of any negligent act, error or omission, whenever or wherever committed or alleged to have been committed, on the part of the applicant or any person who has been, is now, or may hereafter during the subsistence of the policies be employed by the said applicant in his capacity as insurance broker, provided that the filing of any claim or claims under one of such policies shall preclude the filing of the said claim or claims under the other policy. The said policies shall be in such amounts as may be prescribed by the Insurance Commissioner, depending upon the size or amount of the broking business of the applicant, but in no case shall the amount of each of such policies be less than five hundred thousand pesos. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 303. The Commissioner shall, in order to determine the competence of every applicant to have the kind of license applied for, require such applicant to submit to a written examination and to pass the same to the satisfaction of the Commissioner. Such examination shall be held at such times and places as the Commissioner shall from time to time determine.

Sec. 304. An applicant for the written examination mentioned in the preceding section must be of good moral character and must not have been convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude. He must satisfactorily show to the Commissioner that he has been trained in the kind of insurance contemplated in the license applied for.
Such examination may be waived if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the applicant has undergone extensive education and/or training in insurance.

Sec. 305. An application for the issuance or renewal of a license to act as an insurance agent or insurance broker may be refused, or such license, if already issued or renewed, shall be suspended or revoked if the Commissioner finds that the applicant for, or holder of, such license:

      (a) has willfully violated any provision of this Code; or

      (b) has intentionally made a material misstatement in the application to qualify for such license; or

      (c) has obtained or attempted to obtain a license by fraud or misrepresentation; or

      (d) has been guilty of fraudulent or dishonest practices; or

      (e) has misappropriated or converted to his own use or illegally withheld moneys required to be held in a fiduciary capacity;

      (f) has not demonstrated trustworthiness and competence to transact business as an insurance agent or insurance broker in such manner as to safeguard the public; or

      (g) has materially misrepresented the terms and conditions of policies or contracts of insurance which he seeks to sell or has sold; or

      (h) has failed to pass the written examination prescribed, if not otherwise exempt from taking the same.

In addition to the foregoing causes, no license to act as insurance agent or insurance broker shall be renewed if the holder thereof has not been actively engaged as such agent or broker in accordance with such rules as the Commissioner may prescribe. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1814).

Sec. 306. The premium, or any portion thereof, which an insurance agent or insurance broker collects from an insured and which is to be paid to an insurance company because of the assumption of liability through the issuance of policies or contracts of insurance, shall be held by the agent or broker in a fiduciary capacity and shall not be misappropriated or converted to his own use or illegally withheld by the agent or broker.

Any insurance company which delivers to an insurance agent or insurance broker a policy or contract of insurance shall be deemed to have authorized such agent or broker to receive on its behalf payment of any premium which is due on such policy or contract of insurance at the time of its issuance or delivery or which becomes due thereon.

Sec. 307. Any provision of existing laws to the contrary notwithstanding, no person shall, within the Philippines, sell or offer for sale a variable contract or do or perform any act or thing in the sale, negotiation, making or consummating of any variable contract other than for himself unless such person shall have a valid and current license from the Commissioner authorizing such person to act as a variable contract agent. No such license shall be issued unless and until the Commissioner is satisfied, after examination that such person is by training, knowledge, ability and character qualified to act as such agent. Any such license may be withdrawn and cancelled by the Commissioner after notice and hearing, if he shall find that the holder thereof does not then have the qualifications required for the issuance of such license.

Sec. 308. It shall be unlawful for any person, company or corporation in the Philippines to act as general agent of any insurance company unless he is empowered by a written power of attorney duly executed by such insurance company, and registered with the Commissioner to receive notices, summons and legal processes for and in behalf of the insurance company concerned in connection with actions or other legal proceedings against said insurance company. It shall be the duty of said general agent to notify the Commissioner of his post office address in the Philippines, or any change thereof. Notices, summons, or processes of any kind sent by registered mail to the last registered address of such general agent of the company concerned or to the Commissioner shall be sufficient service and deemed as if served on the insurance company itself.

Sec. 309. Except as otherwise provided by law or treaty, it shall be unlawful for any person, partnership, association or corporation in the Philippines, for himself or itself, or for some other person, partnership, association or corporation, either to procure, receive or forward applications of insurance in, or to issue or to deliver or accept policies or contracts of insurance of or for, any insurance company or companies not authorized to transact business in the Philippines, covering risks, life or nonlife, situated in the Philippines; and any such person, partnership, association or corporation violating the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a penal offense, and upon conviction thereof, shall for each such offense be punished by a fine of ten thousand pesos, or imprisonment of six months, or both at the discretion of the court: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to reinsurance.

Title 2
REINSURANCE BROKERS

Sec. 310. Except as provided in the next succeeding title, no person shall act as reinsurance broker in the Philippines unless he is authorized as such by the Commissioner.

A reinsurance broker is one who, for compensation, not being a duly authorized agent, employee or officer of an insurer in which any reinsurance is effected, act or aids in any manner in negotiating contracts of reinsurance, or placing risks of effecting reinsurance, for any insurance company authorized to do business in the Philippines.

Sec. 311. Upon application and payment of the corresponding fee hereinafter prescribed, and the filing of two errors and omissions (professional liability or professional indemnity) policies hereinafter described, a person may, if found qualified, be issued a license to act as reinsurance broker by the Commissioner. No such license shall be valid after the thirtieth day of June of the year following its issuance unless it is renewed. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

The errors and omissions (professional liability or professional indemnity) policies mentioned above shall indemnify the applicant against any claim or claims for breach of duty as reinsurance broker which may be made against him by reason of any negligent act, error or omission, whenever or wherever committed or alleged to have been committed, on the part of the applicant or any person who has been, is now, or may hereafter during the subsistence of the policies be employed by the said applicant in his capacity as reinsurance broker; Provided, That the filing of any claim or claims under one of such policies shall preclude the filing of the said claim or claims under the other policy. The said policies shall be issued separately by two insurance companies authorized to do business in the Philippines and shall be in such amounts as may be prescribed by the Insurance Commissioner, depending upon the size or amount of the broking business of the applicant, but in no case shall the amount of each of such policies be less than five hundred thousand pesos. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 312. The Commissioner may recall, suspend or revoke the license granted to a reinsurance broker for violation of any existing law, rule and regulation, or any provision of this Code after due notice and hearing.

Title 3
RESIDENT AGENTS

Sec. 313. No person shall act as resident agent, as hereinafter defined, unless he is registered as such with the Commissioner.

Sec. 314. The term "resident agent", as used in this title, is one duly appointed by a foreign insurer or broker not authorized to do business in the Philippines to receive in its behalf notices, summons and legal processes in connection with actions or other legal proceedings against such foreign insurer or broker.

Sec. 315. The application for a certificate of registration as resident agent filed with the Commissioner must be accompanied with:

      (a) a copy of the power of attorney, duly notarized and authenticated by the Philippine Consul in the place where such foreign insurer or broker is domiciled, empowering the applicant to act as resident agent and to receive notices, summons and legal processes for and in behalf of such foreign insurer or broker in connection with any action or legal proceeding against such foreign insurer or broker; and

      (b) a copy of the corresponding certificate issued by the Board of Investments as required under Section 4 of Republic Act No. 5455, if such foreign insurer or broker is not otherwise exempt from such requirement.

Sec. 316. It shall be the duty of such resident agent to notify immediately the Commissioner of any change of his office address.

Sec. 317. A certificate of registration issued to a resident agent shall expire on the thirtieth day of June of the year following its issuance unless it is renewed.

The Commissioner may, after due notice and hearing, recall or cancel the certificate of registration issued to a resident agent for violation of any existing law, rule or regulation, or any provision of this Code. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Title 4
NON-LIFE COMPANY UNDERWRITER

Sec. 318. No person shall act, and no company shall employ any person, as non-life company underwriter, whose duty and responsibility it shall be to select, evaluate and accept risks for, and to determine the terms and conditions, including those pertaining to amounts of retentions, under which such risks are to be accepted by the company, unless such underwriter is registered as such with the Commissioner.

Sec. 319. Every non-life insurance company doing business in the Philippines must maintain at all times a register of risks accepted and a claims register for each line of risks engaged in by such non-life insurance company with such entries therein as are now or as may hereafter be required by the Commissioner, and it shall be the responsibility of the underwriter on the particular line or risk involved to see to it that the said registers are well maintained and kept, and that all entries therein are properly and correctly recorded. Such registers shall be open to inspection and examination of duly authorized representative of the Commissioner at all times during business hours.

Sec. 320. No person shall be registered with the Commissioner, unless such person shall be at least twenty-one years of age on the date of such registration; a resident of the Philippines; of good moral character and with no conviction of any crime involving moral turpitude; has had at the time such registration is made at least two years of underwriting work in the particular line or risk involved; and has passed such qualifying written examination that the Commissioner shall conduct at such time and in such place as he may decide to hold for applicants desiring to act as underwriters.
Such examination shall not be required of any person who has served as non-life company underwriter for a period of at least five years, if the Commissioner is satisfied of the applicant's competence as shown by the results of his underwriting work in the non-life insurance company or companies that employed him in that capacity. The minimum underwriting experience herein required may be reduced or waived if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the non-life company underwriter has undergone extensive education and/or training in insurance.

Sec. 321. Any applicant who misrepresents or omits any material fact in his application for registration as a non-life company underwriter, or commits any dishonest act in taking or in connection with the qualifying written examination for underwriters, shall be barred from being registered as such non-life company underwriter and, if already registered, his registration shall be cancelled and the certificate of registration issued in his favor shall be recalled immediately by the Commissioner.

In the event that the certificate of authority of a non-life insurance company to transact business is suspended or revoked due to business failure arising largely from the imprudent and injudicious acceptance of risks by the underwriter concerned, the registration of such underwriter shall likewise be cancelled and his certificate of registration shall be recalled by the Commissioner, and no similar certificate shall thereafter be issued in his favor.

Sec. 322. No certificate of registration issued to an underwriter shall be valid after the thirtieth day of June of the year following its issuance unless it is renewed.
The Commissioner may, after due notice and hearing, also suspend or cancel such certificate for violation of existing laws, rules and regulations or of any provisions of this Code. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Title 5
ADJUSTERS

Sec. 323. No person, partnership, association, or corporation shall act as an adjuster, as hereinafter defined, unless authorized so to act by virtue of a license issued or renewed by the Commissioner pursuant to the provisions of this Code: Provided, That in the case of a natural person, he must be a Filipino citizen and in the case of a partnership, association or corporation, at least sixty per centum of its capital must be owned by citizens of the Philippines.

Sec. 324. An adjuster may be an independent adjuster or a public adjuster.

The term "independent adjuster" means any person, partnership, association or corporation which, for money, commission or any other thing of value, acts for or on behalf of an insurer in the adjusting of claims arising under insurance contracts or policies issued by such insurer.

The term "public adjuster" means any person, partnership, association or corporation which, for money, commission or any other thing of value, acts on behalf of an insured in negotiating for, or effecting, the settlement of a claim or claims of the said insured arising under insurance contracts or policies, or which advertises for or solicits employment as an adjuster of such claims.

Sec. 325. For every line of insurance claim adjustment, adjusters shall be licensed either as independent adjusters or as public adjusters. No adjuster shall act on behalf of an insurer unless said adjuster is licensed as an independent adjuster; and no adjuster shall act on behalf of an insured unless said adjuster is licensed as a public adjuster: Provided, however, That when a firm or person has been licensed as public adjuster, he shall not be granted another license as independent adjuster and vice versa.

No license, however, shall be required of any company adjuster who is a salaried employee of an insurance company for the adjustment of claims filed under policies issued by such insurance company.

Sec. 326. Such license or any renewal thereof may be issued by the Commissioner upon written application filed by the person interested on the form or forms prescribed by the Commissioner, which shall contain such information as he may require, and upon payment of the corresponding fee hereinafter prescribed.

Sec. 327. The Commissioner shall conduct, at such times, and in such places as he may decide to hold, written examinations to determine the competence and ability of applicants desiring to act as adjuster of insurance claims.

Sec. 328. Every adjuster's license issued hereunder shall be valid until after the thirtieth day of June of the year following the issuance of such license unless it is renewed. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 329. Nothing contained in this title shall apply to any duly licensed attorney-at-law who acts or aids in adjusting insurance claims as an incident to the practice of his profession and who does not advertise himself as an adjuster.

Sec. 330. The Commissioner may suspend or revoke any adjuster's license if, after giving notice and hearing to the adjuster concerned, the Commissioner finds that the said adjuster:

      (1) has violated any provision of this Code and of the circulars, rulings and instructions of the Commissioner or has violated any law in the course of his dealings as an adjuster; or

      (2) has made a material misstatement in the application for such license; or

      (3) has been guilty of fraudulent or dishonest practices; or

      (4) has demonstrated his incompetence or untrustworthiness to act as adjuster; or

      (5) has made patently unjust valuation of loss; or

      (6) has failed to make a report of the adjustment he proposed within sixty days from the date of the filing of the claim by the insured with the insurer, unless prevented so to do by reasons beyond his control; or

      (7)  has refused to allow an examination into his affairs or method of doing business as hereinafter provided.

Sec. 331. Every adjuster shall submit to the Commissioner a quarterly report of all losses which are the subject of adjustment effected by him during each month in the form prescribed by the Commissioner. The report shall be filed within one month after the end of each quarter.

Sec. 332. Every adjuster shall keep his or its books, records, reports, accounts, and vouchers in such manner that the Commissioner or his duly authorized representatives may readily verify the quarterly reports of the said adjuster and ascertain whether the said adjuster has complied with the provisions of law or regulations obligatory upon him or whether the method of doing business of the said adjuster has been fair, just and honest.

Sec. 333. The Commissioner shall, at least once a year and whenever he considers the public interest so demands, cause an examination to be made into the affairs and method of doing business of every adjuster.

Sec. 334. Any violation of any provision of this title shall be punished by a fine of not more than ten thousand pesos, or by imprisonment in the discretion of the court; Provided, That, in case of a partnership, association or corporation, the said penalty shall be imposed upon the partner, president, manager, managing director, director or person in charge of its business or responsible for the violation.

Title 6
ACTUARIES

Sec. 335. No life insurance company shall be licensed to do business in the Philippines nor shall any life insurance company doing business in the Philippines be allowed to continue doing such business unless they shall engage the services of an actuary duly accredited with the Commissioner who shall, during his tenure of office, be directly responsible for the direction and supervision of all actuarial work connected with or that may be involved in the business of the insurance company.

Sec. 336. Any person may be officially accredited by the Commissioner to act as any actuary in any life insurance company or in any mutual benefit association authorized to do business in the Philippines upon application therefor and the payment of the corresponding fee hereinafter prescribed: Provided, That: (1) he is a fellow of good standing of the Acturial Society of the Philippines at the time of his appointment and remains in such good standing during the tenure of his engagement; or (2) in the case of one who is not a fellow of the Acturial Society of the Philippines, he meets all the requirements of the said Society for accreditation as a fellow of the Society, and has been given permission by the pertinent government authorities in the Philippines to render services in the Philippines, in the event that he is not a citizen of the Philippines.

No certificate of registration issued under this title shall be valid after the thirtieth day of June of the year following its issuance unless it is renewed. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 337. The following documents, which are from time to time submitted to the Commissioner by a life insurance company authorized to do business in the Philippines, shall be duly certified by an accredited actuary employed by such company:

      1. Policy reserves and net due and deferred premiums.

      2. Statements of bases and net premiums, loading for gross premiums, and on non-forfeiture values and reserves, when applying for approval of gross premiums, reserves and non-forfeiture values.

      3. Policies of insurance under any plan submitted to the Commissioner as required by law.

      4. Annual statements and valuation reports submitted to the Commissioner as required by law.

      5. Financial projection showing the probable income and outgo and reserve requirements, enumerating the acturial assumptions and bases of projections.

      6. Valuation of annuity funds or retirement plans.
      Any life insurance company authorized to do business in the Philippines may employ any person who is not officially accredited under either of the qualifications for any kind of acturial work, provided that he shall not, at any time, have the authority to certify to the correctness of the foregoing documents.

Sec. 338. No accredited actuary shall serve more than one client or employer at the same time. However, one already in the employ of an insurance company may be allowed by the Commissioner to serve a mutual benefit association or any other insurance company, provided the following conditions are first complied with: (a) that the request to engage his services by the other employer is in writing; (b) that his present employer acquiesced to it in writing; and (c) that he furnishes the Commissioner with copies of said request and acquiescence.

Title 7
RATING ORGANIZATION AND RATE MAKING

Sec. 339. Every organization which now exists or which may hereafter be formed for the purpose of making rates to be used by more than one insurance company authorized to do business in the Philippines shall be known as a "rating organization."  The term "rate" as used in this title shall generally mean the ratio of the premium to the amount insured and shall include, as the context may require, either the consideration to be paid or charged for insurance contracts, including surety bonds, or the elements and factors forming the basis for the determination or application of the same, or both.

Sec. 340. Every rating organization which now exists or which may hereafter be formed shall be subject to the provisions of this title.

Sec. 341. No rating organization hereafter formed shall commence rate-making operations until it shall have obtained a license from the Commissioner. Before obtaining such license, such rating organization shall file with the Commissioner a notice of its intention to commence rate-making operations, a copy of its constitution, articles of agreement or association, or of incorporation, and its by-laws, a list of insurance companies that have agreed to become members or subscribers, and such other information concerning such rating organization and its operations as may be required by the Commissioner. If the Commissioner finds that the organization has complied with the provisions of law and that it has a sufficient number of members or subscribers and is otherwise qualified to function as a rating organization, the Commissioner may issue a license to such rating organization authorizing it to make rates for the kinds of insurance or subdivisions thereof as may be specified in such license. No license issued to a rating organization shall be valid after the thirtieth day of June of the year following its issuance unless it is renewed. No rating organization which now exists and is not licensed pursuant to this section shall continue rate-making operations until it shall have obtained from the Commissioner a license which he may issue if satisfied that such organization is complying with the provisions of this title. Every rating organization shall notify the Commissioner promptly of every change in (1) its constitution, its articles of agreement or association or its certificate of incorporation, and its by-laws rules and regulations governing the conduct of its business, and (2) its list of members and subscribers.

A "member" means an insurer who participates in or is entitled to participate in the management of a rating organization.

A "subscriber" means an insurer which is furnished at its request with rates and rating manuals by a rating organization of which it is not a member. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 342. Each rating organization shall furnish its rating service without discrimination to all of its members and subscribers, and shall, subject to reasonable rules and regulations, permit any insurance company doing business in the Philippines, not admitted to membership, to become a subscriber to its rating services for any kind of insurance or subdivisions thereof. Notice of proposed changes in such rules and regulations shall be given to subscribers. The reasonableness of any rule or regulation in its application to subscribers, or the refusal of any rating organization to admit an insurance company as a subscriber, shall, at the request of any subscriber or any such insurance company, be reviewed by the Commissioner at a hearing held upon at least ten days' written notice to such rating organization and to such subscriber or insurance company. The Commissioner may, after such hearing, issue an appropriate order.

Sec. 343. No rating organization or any other association shall refuse to do business with, or prohibit or prevent the payment of commissions to, any person licensed as an insurance broker pursuant to the provisions of title one of this chapter.

Sec. 344. Rating organization shall be subject to examination by the Commissioner, as often as he may deem such examination expedient, pursuant to the provisions of this Code applicable to the examination of insurance companies. He shall cause such an examination of each rating organization to be made at least once in every five years.

Sec. 345. The Commissioner may suspend or revoke the license of any rating organization which fails to comply with his order within the time limited by such order, or any extension thereof which he may grant. The Commissioner may determine when a suspension of license shall become effective and it shall remain in effect for the period fixed by him, unless he modifies or rescinds such suspension.

Sec. 346. Any rating organization may subscribe for or purchase acturial, technical or other services, and such services shall be available to all members and subscribers without discrimination.

Sec. 347. Any rating organization may provide for the examination of policies, daily reports, binders, renewal certificates, endorsements or other evidences of insurance, or the cancellation thereof, and may make reasonable rules governing their submission. Such rules shall contain a provision that in the event an insurance company does not within sixty days furnish satisfactory evidence to the rating organization of the correction of any error or omission previously called to its attention by the rating organization, it shall be the duty of the rating organization to notify the Commissioner thereof. All information so submitted for examination shall be confidential.

Sec. 348. Cooperation among rating organizations or among rating organizations and insurers in rate making or in other matters within the scope of this title is hereby authorized, provided the filings resulting from such cooperation are subject to all provisions of this title which are applicable to filings generally. The Commissioner may review such cooperative activities and practices and if he finds that any such activity or practice is unfair or unreasonable or otherwise inconsistent with the provisions of this title, he may issue a written order specifying in what respects such activity or practice is unfair or unreasonable or otherwise inconsistent with the provisions of this title, and requiring the discontinuance of such activity or practice.

Sec. 349. Every rating organization and every insurance company which makes and files its own rates, shall make rates for all risks rated by such organization or insurance company in accordance with the following provisions:

      (a) Basic classification, manual, minimum, class, or schedule rates or rating plans, shall be made and adopted for all such risks. Any departure from such rates shall be in accordance with schedules, rating plans and rules filed with the Commissioner;

      (b) Rates shall be reasonable and adequate for the class of risks to which they apply;

      (c) No rate shall discriminate unfairly between risks involving essentially the same hazards and expense elements or between risks in the application of like charges and credits;

      (d) Consideration shall be given to the past and prospective loss experience, including the conflagration and catastrophe hazards, if any, to all factors reasonably attributable to the class of risks, to a reasonable profit, to commissions paid during the most recent annual period and to past and prospective other expenses. In case of fire insurance rates, consideration shall be given to the experience of the fire insurance business during a period of not less than five years next preceding the year in which the review is made;

      (e) Risk may be grouped by classifications for the establishment of rates and minimum premiums. Classification rates may be modified to produce rates for individual risks in accordance with rating plans which establish standards for measuring variations in hazards or expense provisions, or both. Such standards may measure any difference among risks that can be demonstrated to have a probable effect upon losses or expenses.

Sec. 350. No rating organization and no insurance company which makes and files its own rates shall make or promulgate any rate or schedule of rates which is to be applied to any fire risk on the condition that the whole amount of insurance on any risk or any specified part thereof shall be placed with the members of or subscribers to such rating organization or with such insurer.

Sec. 351. Every insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall annually file with the rating organization of which it is a member or subscriber, or with such other agency as the Commissioner may designate, a statistical report showing a classification schedule of its premiums and losses on all kinds or types of insurance business to which section three hundred forty-nine is applicable, and such other information as the Commissioner may deem necessary or expedient for the administration of the provisions of this title.

Sec. 352. Every non-life rating organization and every non-life insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall file with the Commissioner, except as to risks which by general custom of the business are not written according to manual rates or rating plans, every rate manual, schedule of rates, classification of risks, rating plan, and every other rating rule and every modification of any of the foregoing which it proposes to use. An insurance company may satisfy its obligation to make such filings for any kind or type of insurance by becoming a member of or subscriber to a rating organization which makes such filings for such kind or type of insurance, and by authorizing the Commissioner to accept such filings of the rating organization on behalf of such insurance company.

Sec. 353. Every manual or schedule of rates and every rating plan filed as provided in the preceding section shall state or clearly indicate the character and extent of the coverage to which any such rate or any modification thereof will be applied.

Sec. 354. The Commissioner shall review filings as soon as reasonably possible after they have been made in order to determine whether they meet the requirements of this title. When a filing is not accompanied by the information upon which the insurance company supports such filing, and the Commissioner does not have sufficient information to determine whether such filing meets the requirements of this title, he shall require such insurance company to furnish the information upon which it supports such filing. The information furnished in support of a filing may include: (1) the experience or judgment of the insurance company or rating organization making the filing; (2) its interpretation of any statistical data it relies upon; (3) the experience of other insurance companies or rating organization; or (4) any other relevant factors.

Sec. 355. If the Commissioner finds that any rate filings theretofore filed with him do not comply with the provisions of this title or that they provide rates or rules which are inadequate, excessive, unfairly discriminatory or otherwise unreasonable, he may order the same withdrawn and at the expiration of sixty days thereafter the same shall be deemed no longer on file. Before making any such finding and order, the Commissioner shall give notice, not less than ten days in advance, and a hearing, to the rating organization, or to the insurer, which filed the same. Such order shall not affect any contract or policy made or issued prior to the expiration of such sixty day period.

Sec. 356. No member or subscriber of a rating organization, and no insurance company doing business in the Philippines, or agent, employee or other representative of such company, and no insurance broker shall charge or demand a rate or receive a premium which deviates from the rates, rating plans, classifications, schedules, rules and standards, made and last filed by a rating organization or by or on behalf of the insurance company, or shall issue or make any policy or contract involving violation of such rate filings.

Sec. 357. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this title, upon the written application of the insurer, stating his reasons therefor, filed with and approved by the Commissioner, a rate in excess of that provided by a filing otherwise applicable may be used on any specific risk.

Sec. 358. Whenever the Commissioner shall determine, after notice and a hearing, that the rates charged or filed on any class of risks are excessive, discriminatory, inadequate or unreasonable, he shall order that such rates be appropriately adjusted. For the purpose of applying the provisions of this section, the Commissioner may from time to time approve reasonable classifications of risks for any or all such classes, having due regard to the past and prospective loss experience, including conflagration or catastrophe hazards, if any, to all other relevant factors and to a reasonable profit.

Sec. 359. Nothing contained in this title shall be construed as requiring any insurer to become a member of or subscriber to any rating organization.

Sec. 360. Agreements may be made among insurance companies with respect to the equitable apportionment among them of insurance which may be afforded applicants who are in good faith entitled to but are unable to procure such insurance through ordinary methods and such insurance companies may agree among themselves on the use of reasonable rates and modifications for such insurance, such agreements and rate modifications to be subject to the approval of the Commissioner; Provided, however, That the provisions of this section shall not be deemed to apply to workmen's compensation insurance.

Sec. 361. No insurance company doing business in the Philippines or any agent thereof, no insurance broker, and no employee or other representative of any such insurance company, agent, or broker, shall make, procure or negotiate any contract of insurance or agreement as to policy contract, other than is plainly expressed in the policy or other written contract issued or to be issued as evidence thereof, or shall directly or indirectly, by giving or sharing a commission or in any manner whatsoever, pay or allow or offer to pay or allow to the insured or to any employee of such insured, either as an inducement to the making of such insurance or after such insurance has been effected, any rebate from the premium which is specified in the policy, or any special favor or advantage in the dividends or other benefits to accrue thereon, or shall give or offer to give any valuable consideration or inducement of any kind, directly or indirectly, which is not specified in such policy or contract of insurance; nor shall any such company, or any agent thereof, as to any policy or contract of insurance issued, make any discrimination against any Filipino in the sense that he is given less advantageous rates, dividends or other policy conditions or privileges than are accorded to other nationals because of his race.

Sec. 362. No insurance company doing business in the Philippines, and no officer, director, or agent thereof, and no insurance broker or any other person, partnership or corporation shall issue or circulate or cause or permit to be issued or circulated any literature, illustration, circular or statement of any sort misrepresenting the terms of any policy issued by any insurance company of the benefits or advantages promised thereby, or any misleading estimate of the dividends or share of surplus to be received thereon, or shall use any name or title of any policy or class of policies misrepresenting the true nature thereof; nor shall any such company or agent thereof, or any other person, partnership or corporation make any misleading representation or incomplete comparison of policies to any person insured in such company for the purpose of inducing or tending to induce such person to lapse, forfeit, or surrender his said insurance.

Sec. 363. If the Commissioner, after notice and hearing, finds that any insurance company, rating organization, agent, broker or other person has violated any of the provisions of this title, it shall order the payment of a fine not to exceed five hundred pesos for each such offense, and shall immediately revoke the license issued to such insurance company, rating organization, agent, or broker. The issuance, procurement or negotiation of a single policy or contract of insurance shall be deemed a separate offense.

Title 8
PROVISION COMMON TO AGENTS, BROKERS,
AND ADJUSTERS

Sec. 364. A license issued to a partnership, association or corporation to act as an insurance agent, general agent, insurance broker, reinsurance broker, or adjuster shall authorize only the individual named in the license who shall qualify therefor as though an individual licensee. The Commissioner shall charge, and the licensee shall pay, a full additional license fee as to each respective individual so named in such license in excess of one.
Licenses and certificates of registration issued under the provisions of this chapter may be renewed by the filing of notices of intention on forms to be prescribed by the Commissioner and payment of the fees therefor. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).
Chapter V
SECURITY FUND

Sec. 365. There is hereby created a fund to be known as the "Security Fund" which shall be used in the payment of allowed claims against an insurance company authorized to transact business in the Philippines remaining unpaid by reason of the solvency of such company. The said Fund may also be used to reinsure the policy of the insolvent insurer in any solvent insurer authorized to do business in the Philippines as provided in section two hundred forty-nine. In the event of national emergency or calamity, the Fund may likewise be used to pay insured claims which otherwise would not be compensable under the provisions of the policy. No payment from the Security Fund shall, however, be made to any person who owns or controls ten per centum or more of the voting shares of stock of the insolvent insurer and no payment on any one claim shall exceed twenty thousand pesos.

Sec. 366. Such Fund shall consist of all payments made to the Fund by insurance companies authorized to do business in the Philippines. Payments made by life insurance companies shall be treated separately from those made by non-life insurance companies and the corresponding fund shall be called "Life Account" and "Non-Life Account", respectively, and shall be held and administered as such by the Commissioner in accordance with the provisions of this title. The "Life Account" shall be utilized exclusively for disbursements that refer to life insurance companies, while the "Non-Life Account" shall be utilized exclusively for disbursements that refer to non-life insurance companies.

Sec. 367. All insurance companies doing business in the Philippines shall contribute to the Security Fund, Life or Non-Life Account, as the case may be, on or before the fifteenth day of June, nineteen hundred and seventy-five, the aggregate amount of five million pesos for each Account. The contributions of the life insurance companies and of the non-life insurance companies shall be in direct proportion to the ratio between a particular life insurance company or a particular non-life insurance company's net worth and the aggregate net worth of all life insurance companies or all non-life insurance companies, as the case may be, as shown in their latest financial statements approved by the Commissioner. This proportion applied to the five million pesos shall be the contribution of a particular company to the corresponding Account of the Security Fund.

The amount of five million pesos in each Account shall be in the form of a revolving trust fund. The respective contributions of the companies shall remain as admitted assets in their books and any disbursement therefrom shall be deducted proportionately from the contributions of each company which will be allowed as deductions for income tax purposes. Any earnings of the Fund shall be turned over to the contributing companies in proportion to their contributions.

In the case of disbursements of funds from the Fund as provided in the foregoing paragraph, the life and non-life companies, as the case may be, shall replenish the amount disbursed in direct proportion to the individual company's net worth and the aggregate net worth of the life or non-life companies, as the case may be. However, in no case shall the Fund exceed the aggregate amount of ten million pesos, or five million pesos for each Account.
Should the Fund, Life of Non-Life Account, as the case may be, be inadequate for a disbursement as provided for, then the Life or Non-Life companies, as the case may be, shall contribute to the Fund their respective shares in the proportion previously mentioned.

Sec. 368. The Commissioner may adopt, amend, and enforce all reasonable rules and regulations necessary for the proper administration of the Fund and of the Accounts. In the event any insurer shall fail to make any payment required by this title, or that any payment made is incorrect, he shall have full authority to examine all the books and records of the insurer for the purpose of ascertaining the facts and shall determine the correct amount to be paid and may proceed in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover for the benefit of the Fund or of the Account concerned any sum shown to be due upon such examination and determination. Any insurer which fails to make any payment to the Fund or to the Account concerned when due, shall thereby forfeit to said Fund or Account concerned a penalty of five per centum of the amount determined to be due as provided by this title, plus one per centum of such amount for each month of delay or fraction thereof, after the expiration of the first month of such delay, but the Commissioner, if satisfied that the delay was excusable, may remit all or any part of such penalty. The Commissioner, in his discretion, may suspend or revoke the certificate of authority to do business in the Philippines of any insurance company which shall fail to comply with this title or to pay any penalty imposed in accordance therewith.

Sec. 369. The Accounts created by this title shall be separate and apart from each other and from any other fund. The Treasurer of the Philippines shall be the custodian of the Life Account and Non-Life Account of the Security Fund; and all disbursements from any Account shall be made by the Treasurer of the Philippines upon vouchers signed by the Commissioner or his deputy, as hereinafter provided. The moneys of said Account may be invested by the Commissioner only in bonds or other evidences of debt of the government of the Philippines or its political subdivisions or instrumentalities. The Commissioner may sell any of the securities in which an Account is in vested, if advisable, for its proper administration or in the best interest of such Account.

Sec. 370. Payments from either the Life Insurance Account or Non-Life Account, as the case may be, shall be made by the Treasurer of the Philippines to the Commissioner, upon the authority of appropriate certificate filed with him by the Commissioner acting in such capacity.

Sec. 371. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, designate or appoint a duly authorized representative or representatives to appear and defend before any court or other body or official having jurisdiction any or all actions or proceedings against principals or assureds on insurance policies or contracts issued to them where the insurer has become insolvent or unable to meet its insurance obligations. The Commissioner shall have, as of the date of insolvency of such insurer or as of the date of its inability meet its insurance obligations, only the rights which such insurer would have had if it had not become insolvent or unable to meet its insurance obligations. For the purpose of this title the Commissioner shall have power to employ such counsel, clerks and assistants as he may deem necessary.

Sec. 372. The expense of administering an Account shall be paid out of the Account concerned. The Commissioner shall serve as administrator of the Fund and of the Accounts without additional compensation, but may be allowed and paid from the Account concerned expenses incurred in the performance of his duties in connection with said Account. The compensation of those persons employed payable from the Account concerned. The Commissioner shall include in his annual report to the Secretary of Finance a statement of the expenses of administration of the Fund and of the Life Account and Non-Life Account for the preceding year.
Chapter VI
COMPULSORY MOTOR VEHICLE
LIABILITYINSURANCE

Sec. 373. For purposes of this chapter:
(a) "Motor Vehicle" is any vehicle as defined in section three, paragraph (a) of Republic Act Numbered Four Thousand One Hundred Thirty-Six, Otherwise known as the "Land Transportation and Traffic Code."

(b) "Passenger" is any fare paying person being transported and conveyed in and by a motor vehicle for transportation of passengers for compensation, including persons expressly authorized by law or by the vehicle's operator or his agents to ride without fare.

(c) "Third-Party" is any person other than a passenger as defined in this section and shall also exclude a member of the household, or a member of the family within the second degree of consanguinity or affinity, of a motor vehicle owner or land transportation operator, as likewise defined herein, or his employee in respect of death, bodily injury, or damage to property arising out of and in the course of employment. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1814 and 1981).

(d) "Owner" or "motor vehicle owner" means the actual legal owner of a motor vehicle, in whose name such vehicle is duly registered with the Land Transportation Commission;

(e) "Land transportation operator" means the owner or owners of motor vehicles for transportation of passengers for compensation, including school buses;

(f) "Insurance policy" or "Policy" refers to a contract of insurance against passenger and thirty-party liability for death or bodily injuries and damaged to property arising from motor vehicle accidents. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455 and 1814).

Sec. 374. It shall be unlawful for any land transportation operator or owner of a motor vehicle to operate the same in the public highways unless there is in force in relation thereto a policy of insurance or guaranty in cash or surety bond issued in accordance with the provisions of this chapter to indemnify the death, bodily injury, and/or damage to property of a third-party or passenger, as the case may be, arising from the use thereof. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455 and 1814).

Sec. 375. The Commissioner shall furnish the Land Transportation Commissioner with a list of insurance companies authorized to issue the policy of insurance or surety bond required by this chapter. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1814).

Sec. 376. The Land Transportation Commission shall not allow the registration or renewal of registration of any motor vehicle without first requiring from the land transportation operator or motor vehicle owner concerned the presentation and filing of a substantiating documentation in a form approved by the Commissioner evidencing that the policy of insurance or guaranty in cash or surety bond required by this chapter is in effect. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 377. Every land transportation operator and every owner of a motor vehicle shall, before applying for the registration or renewal of registration of any motor vehicle, at his option, either secure an insurance policy or surety bond issued by any insurance company authorized by the Commissioner or make a cash deposit in such amount as herein required as limit of liability for purposes specified in section three hundred seventy-four.

(1) In the case of a land transportation operator, the insurance guaranty in cash or surety bond shall cover liability for death or bodily injuries of third-parties and/or passengers arising out of the use of such vehicle in the amount not less than twelve thousand pesos per passenger or third party and an amount, for each of such categories, in any one accident of not less than that set forth in the following scale:

      (a) Motor vehicles with an authorized capacity of twenty-six or more passengers: Fifty thousand pesos;

      (b) Motor vehicles with an authorized capacity of from twelve to twenty-five passengers: Forty thousand pesos;

      (c) Motor vehicles with an authorized capacity of from six to eleven passengers: Thirty thousand pesos;

      (d) Motor vehicles with an authorized capacity of five or less passengers: Five thousand pesos multiplied by the authorized capacity.

Provided, however, That such cash deposit made to, or surety bond posted with, the Commissioner shall be resorted to by him in cases of accidents the indemnities for which to third-parties and/or passengers are not settled accordingly by the land transportation operator and, in that event, the said cash deposit shall be replenished or such surety bond shall be restored with sixty days after impairment or expiry, as the case may be, by such land transportation operator, otherwise, he shall secure the insurance policy required by this chapter. The aforesaid cash deposit may be invested by the Commissioner in readily marketable government bonds and/or securities.

(2) In the case of an owner of a motor vehicle, the insurance or guaranty in cash or surety bond shall cover liability for death or injury to third parties in an amount not less than that set forth in the following scale in any one accident:

      I. Private Cars
       
            (a) Bantam : Twenty thousand pesos;
            (b) Light  : Twenty thousand pesos;
            (c) Heavy  : Thirty thousand pesos;


      II. Other Private Vehicles
       
            (a) Tricycles, motorcyles, and scooters  :  Twelve thousand pesos;
            (b) Vehicles with an unladen weight of 2,600 kilos or less : Twenty thousand pesos;
            (c) Vehicles with an unladen weight of between 2,601 kilos and 3,930 kilos : Thirty thousand pesos;
            (d) Vehicles with an unladen weight over 3,930 kilos : Fifty thousand pesos.

 The Commissioner may, if warranted, set forth schedule of indemnities for the payment of claims for death or bodily injuries with the coverages set forth herein. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455 and 1814).

Sec. 378. Any claim for death or injury to any passenger or third party pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall be paid without the necessity of proving fault or negligence of any kind; Provided, That for purposes of this section:

      (i) The total indemnity in respect of any person shall not exceed five thousand pesos;

      (ii) The following proofs of loss, when submitted under oath, shall be sufficient evidence to substantiate the claim:
       
            (a) Police report of accident; and

            (b) Death certificate and evidence sufficient to establish the proper payee; or

            (c) Medical report and evidence of medical or hospital disbursement in respect of which refund is claimed;


      (iii) Claim may be made against one motor vehicle only. In the case of an occupant of a vehicle, claim shall lie against the insurer of the vehicle in which the occupant is riding, mounting or dismounting from. In any other case, claim shall lie against the insurer of the directly offending vehicle. In all cases, the right of the party paying the claim to recover against the owner of the vehicle responsible for the accident shall be maintained.

Sec. 379. No land transportation operator or owner of motor vehicle shall be unreasonably denied the policy of insurance or surety bond required by this chapter by the insurance companies authorized to issue the same, otherwise, the Land Transportation Commission shall require from said land transportation operator or owner of the vehicle, in lieu of a policy of insurance or surety bond, a certificate that a cash deposit has been made with the Commissioner in such amount required as limits of indemnity in section three hundred seventy-seven to answer for the passenger and/or third-party liability of such land transportation operator or owner of the vehicle.

No insurance company may issue the policy of insurance or surety bond required under this chapter unless so authorized under existing laws.

The authority to engage in the casualty and/or surety lines of business of an insurance company that refuses to issue or renew, without just cause, the insurance policy or surety bond therein required shall be withdrawn immediately. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455 and 1814).

Sec. 380. No cancellation of the policy shall be valid unless written notice thereof is given to the land transportation operator or owner of the vehicle and to the Land Transportation Commission at least fifteen days prior to the intended effective date thereof.
Upon receipt of such notice, the Land Transportation Commission, unless it receives evidence of a new valid insurance or guaranty in cash or surety bond as prescribed in this chapter, or an endorsement of revival of the cancelled one, shall order the immediate confiscation of the plates of the motor vehicle covered by such cancelled policy. The same may be re-issued only upon presentation of a new insurance policy or that a guaranty in cash or surety band has been made or posted with the Commissioner and which meets the requirements of this chapter, or an endorsement or revival of the cancelled one. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 381. If the cancellation of the policy or surety bond is contemplated by the land transportation operator or owner of the vehicle, he shall, before the policy or surety bond ceases to be effective, secure a similar policy of insurance or surety bond to replace the policy or surety bond to be cancelled or make a cash deposit in sufficient amount with the Commissioner and without any gap, file the required documentation with the Land Transportation Commission, and notify the insurance company concerned of the cancellation of its policy or surety bond. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 382. In case of change of ownership of a motor vehicle, or change of the engine of an insured vehicle, there shall be no need of issuing a new policy until the next date of registration or renewal of registration of such vehicle, and provided that the insurance company shall agree to continue the policy, such change of ownership or such change of the engine shall be indicated in a corresponding endorsement by the insurance company concerned, and a signed duplicate of such endorsement shall, within a reasonable time, be filed with the Land Transportation Commission.

Sec. 383. In the settlement and payment of claims, the indemnity shall not be availed of by any accident victim or claimant as an instrument of enrichment by reason of an accident, but as an assistance or restitution insofar as can fairly be ascertained.

Sec. 384. Any person having any claim upon the policy issued pursuant to this Chapter shall, without any unnecessary delay, present to the insurance company concerned a written notice of claim setting forth the nature, extent and duration of the injuries sustained as certified by a duly licensed physician. Notice of claim must be filed within six months from date of accident, otherwise, the claim shall be deemed waived. Action or suit for recovery of damage due to loss or injury must be brought, in proper cases, with the Commissioner or the Courts within one year from denial of the claim, otherwise, the claimant's right of action shall prescribe. (As amended by Presidential Decree 1814 and Batas Pambansa Blg. 874).

Sec. 385. The insurance company concerned shall forthwith ascertain the truth and extent of the claim and make payment within five working days after reaching an agreement. If no agreement is reached, the insurance company shall pay only the "no-fault" indemnity provided in section three hundred seventy-eight without prejudice to the claimant from pursuing his claim further, in which case, he shall not be required or compelled by the insurance company to execute any quit claim or document releasing it from liability under the policy of insurance or surety bond issued. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

In case of any dispute in the enforcement of the provisions of any policy issued pursuant to this chapter, the adjudication of such dispute shall be within the original and exclusive jurisdiction of the Commissioner, subject to the limitations provided in section four hundred sixteen.

Sec. 386. It shall be unlawful for a land transportation operator or owner of motor vehicle to require his or its drivers or other employees to contribute in the payment of premiums.

Sec. 387. No government office or agency having the duty of implementing the provisions of this chapter nor any official or employee thereof shall act as agent in procuring the insurance policy or surety bond provided for herein. The commission of an agent procuring the said policy or bond shall in no case exceed ten per centum of the amount of the premiums therefor.

Sec. 388. Any land transportation operator or owner of motor vehicle or any other person violating any of the provisions of the preceding sections shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred pesos but not more than one thousand pesos and/or imprisonment for not more than six months. The violation of section three hundred seventy-seven by a land transportation operator shall be a sufficient cause for the revocation of the certificate of public convenience issued by the Board of Transportation covering the vehicle concerned.

Sec. 389. Whenever any violation of the provisions of this chapter is committed by a corporation or association, or by a government office or entity, the executive officer or officers of said corporation, association or government office or entity who shall have knowingly permitted, or failed to prevent, said violation shall be held liable as principals.

Chapter VII
MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS AND
TRUSTS FOR CHARITABLE USES

Title 1
MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS

Sec. 390. Any society, association or corporation, without capital stock, formed or organized not for profit but mainly for the purpose of paying sick benefits to members, or of furnishing financial support to members while out of employment, or of paying to relatives of deceased members of fixed or any sum of money, irrespective of whether such aim or purpose is carried out by means of fixed dues or assessments collected regularly from the members, or of providing, by the issuance of certificates of insurance, payment of its members of accident or life insurance benefits out of such fixed and regular dues or assessments, but in no case shall include any society, association, or corporation with such mutual benefit features and which shall be carried out purely from voluntary contributions collected not regularly and or no fixed amount from whomsoever may contribute, shall be known as a mutual benefit association within the intent of this Code.

Any society, association, or corporation principally organized as labor union shall be governed by the Labor Code notwithstanding any mutual benefit feature provisions in its charter as incident to its organization.
In no case shall a mutual benefit association be organized and authorized to transact business as a charitable or benevolent organization, and whenever it has this feature as incident to its existence, the corresponding charter provision shall be revised to conform with the provision of this section. Mutual benefit association, already licensed  to transact business as such on the date this Code becomes effective, having charitable or benevolent feature shall abandon such incidental purpose upon effectivity of this Code if they desire to continue operating as such mutual benefit associations. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 391. A mutual benefit association, before it may transact as such, must first secure a license from the Commissioner. The application for such license shall be filed with the Commissioner together with certified true copies of the articles of incorporation or the constitution and by-laws of the association, and all amendments thereto, and such other documents or testimonies as the Commissioner may require.

No license shall be granted to a mutual benefit association until the Commissioner shall have been satisfied by such examination as may make and such evidence as he may require that the association is qualified under existing laws to operate and transact business as such. The Commissioner may refuse to issue a license to any mutual benefit association if, in his judgment, such refusal will best promote the interest of the members of such association and of the people of this country. Any license issued shall expire on the last day of June of the year following its issuance and, upon proper application, may be renewed if the association is continuing to comply with existing laws, rules and regulations, orders, instructions, rulings and decisions of the Commissioner. Every association receiving any such license shall be subject to the supervision of the Commissioner: Provided, That no such license shall be granted to any such association if such association has no actuary.

All mutual benefit association existing and licensed as such under the provisions of Article Eight, Chapter Forty-One of the Revised Administrative Code, as amended by Act No. 3612, shall, upon effectivity of this Code, surrender their respective licenses to the Commissioner and apply for new licenses under the provisions of this code if they still desire to continue operating as such mutual benefit associations.

Sec. 392. No mutual benefit association shall be issued a license to operate as such unless it has constituted and established a Guaranty Fund by depositing with the Commissioner an initial minimum amount of ten thousand pesos in cash, or in government securities with a total value equal to such amount, to answer for any valid benefit claim of any of its members.

All moneys received by the Commissioner for this purpose must be deposited by him in interest-bearing deposits with any bank or banks authorized to transact business in the Philippines for the account of the particular association constituting the Guaranty Fund.

Any accrual to such fund, be it interest earned or dividend additions on moneys or securities so deposited, may, with the prior approval of the Commissioner, be withdrawn by the association if there is no pending benefit claim against it, including interest thereon or dividend additions thereto.

The Commissioner, prior to or after licensing a mutual benefit association, may require such association to increase its Guaranty Fund from the initial minimum amount required to an amount equal to at least ten per centum of its assets, if such assets exceed one hundred thousand pesos, but in no case shall such increase exceed the maximum amount of capital investment required of a domestic insurance company under section two hundred and three of this Code. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 393. Every mutual benefit association licensed to do business as such shall issue membership certificates to its members specifying the benefits to which such members are entitled.

Such certificates, together with the articles of incorporation of the association or its constitution and by-laws, and all existing laws as may be pertinent shall constitute the agreement, as of the date of its issuance, between the association and the member. The membership certificate shall be in a form previously approved by the Commissioner.

Sec. 394. A mutual benefit association may, by reinsurance agreement, cede in whole or in part any individual risk or risks under certificates of insurance issued by it, only to a life insurance company authorized to transact business or to a professional reinsurer authorized to accept life risks in the Philippines: Provided, That copy of the draft of such reinsurance agreement shall be submitted to the Commissioner for his approval. The association may take credit for the reserves on such ceded risks to the extent reinsured.

Sec. 395. The constitution or by-laws of a mutual benefit association must distinctly state the purpose for which dues and/or assessments are made and collected and the portion thereof which may be used for expenses.

Death benefit and other relief funds shall be created and used exclusively for paying benefits due the members under their respective membership certificates. A general fund shall likewise be created and used for expenses of administration of the association.

Sec. 396. Every outstanding membership certificate must have, after three full years of being continuously in force, an equity value equivalent to at least fifty per centum of the total membership dues collected thereon.

Sec. 397. Every mutual benefit association must accumulate and maintain, out of the periodic dues collected from its members, sufficient reserves for the payment of claims or obligations for which it shall hold funds in securities satisfactory to the Commissioner consisting of bonds of the Government of the Philippines, or any of its political subdivisions and instrumentalities, or in such other good securities as may be approved by the Commissioner.

The reserve liability shall be established in accordance with acturial procedures and shall be approved by the Commissioner.

The articles of incorporation or the constitution and by-laws of a mutual benefit association must provide that if its reserve as to all or any class of certificates becomes impaired, its board of directors or trustees may require that there shall be paid by the members to the association the amount of the members' equitable proportion of such deficiency as ascertained by said board and that if the payment be not made it shall stand as an indebtedness against the membership certificates of the defaulting members and draw interest not to exceed five per centum per annum compounded annually.

Sec. 398. A mutual benefit association may invest such portion of its funds as shall not be required to meet pending claims and other obligations in any of the classes of investments or types of securities in which life insurance companies doing business in the Philippines may invest.

It may also grant loans to members on the security of a pledge or chattel mortgage of personal properties of the borrowers, or in the absence thereof, on the security of the membership certificate of the borrowing members, in which event such loan shall become a first lien on the proceed thereof.

Sec. 399. The Commissioner or any of his duly designated representatives, shall have the power of visitation, audit and examination into the affairs, financial condition, and methods of doing business of all mutual benefit associations, and he shall cause such examination to be made at least once every two years or whenever it may be deemed proper and necessary. Free access to the books, records and documents of the association shall be accorded to the Commissioner, to his representatives, in such manner that the Commissioner or his representatives may readily verify or determine the true affairs, financial condition, and method of doing business of such association. In the course of such examination, the Commissioner or his duly designated representatives shall have authority to administer oaths and take testimony or other evidence on any matter relating to the affairs of the association.

All minutes of the proceedings of the board of directors or trustees of the association, and those of the regular or special meetings of the members, shall be take, and a copy thereof, in English or in Pilipino, shall be submitted to the Commissioner's representatives or examiners in the course of such examination.

A copy of the findings of such examination, together with the recommendations of the Commissioner, shall be furnished the association for its information and compliance, and the same shall be taken up immediately in the meetings of the board of directors or trustees and of the members of the association.

Sec. 400. Every mutual benefit association shall, annually on or before the thirtieth day of April of each year, render to the Commissioner an annual statement in such form and details as may be prescribed by the Commissioner, signed and sworn to by the president, secretary, treasurer, and actuary of the association, showing the exact condition of its affairs on the preceding thirty-first day of December.

Sec. 401. No money, aid or benefit to be paid, provided or tendered by any mutual benefit association, shall be liable to attachment, garnishment, or other process, or be seized, taken, appropriated, or applied by any legal or equitable process to pay any debt of liability of a member or beneficiary, or any other person who may have a right thereunder, either before or after payment.

Sec. 402. Any member of a mutual benefit association shall have the right at all times to change the beneficiary or beneficiaries or add another beneficiary or other beneficiaries in accordance with the rules and regulations of the association unless he has expressly waived this right in the membership certificate. Every association may, under such rules as it may adopt, limit the scope of beneficiaries and provide that no beneficiary shall have or obtain any vested interest in the proceeds of any certificate until the certificate has become due and payable under the terms of the membership certificate.

Sec. 403. Any chapter affiliate independently licensed as a mutual benefit association may consolidate or merge with any other similar chapter affiliate or with the mother association.

Sec. 404. Any mutual benefit association may be converted into and licensed as a mutual life insurance company by complying with the requirements of the pertinent provisions of this Code and submitting the specific plan for such conversion to the Commissioner for his approval. Such plan, as approved, shall then be submitted to the members either in the regular meeting or in a special meeting called for the purpose for their adoption. The affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the members shall be necessary in order to consider such plan as adopted.

No such conversion shall take effect unless and until approved by the Commissioner.

Sec. 405. No mutual benefit association shall be dissolved without first notifying the Commissioner and furnishing him with a certified copy of the resolution authorizing the dissolution, duly adopted by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members at a meeting called for that purpose, the financial statements as of the date of the resolution, and such other papers or documents as may be required by the Commissioner.

No dissolution shall proceed until and unless approved by the Commissioner and all proceedings in connection therewith shall be witnessed and attested by his duly designated representative.

No mutual benefit association shall be officially declared as dissolved until after the Commissioner so certifies that all outstanding claims against the association have been duly settled and liquidated.

Sec. 406. The Commissioner shall after notice and hearing, have the power either to suspend or revoke the licensed issued to a mutual benefit association if he finds that the association has:

      (a) failed to comply with any provision of this Code;

      (b) failed to comply with any other law or regulation obligatory upon it;

      (c) failed to comply with any order, ruling, instruction, requirement, or recommendation of the Commissioner;

      (d) exceeded its power to the prejudice of its members;

      (e) conducted its business fraudulently or hazardously;

      (f) rendered its affairs and condition to one of insolvency; or

      (g) failed to carry out its aims and purposes for which it was organized due to any cause.

After receipt of the order from the Commissioner suspending or revoking the license, the association must immediately exert efforts to remove such cause or causes which brought about the order, and, upon proper showing, may apply with the Commissioner for the lifting of the order and restoration or revival of the license so revoked or suspended.

Sec. 407. For failure to remove such cause or causes which brought about the suspension or revocation of the license of a mutual benefit association, the Commissioner shall apply under this Code for an order from the proper court to liquidate such association.

The provisions of titles fourteen and fifteen, chapter three, pertaining to the appointment of a conservator and proceedings upon insolvency of an insurance company, shall, insofar as practicable, apply to mutual benefit associations.

Sec. 408. To secure the enforcement of any provision under this title, the Commissioner may issue such rules, rulings, instructions, orders and circulars, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Finance.

Sec. 409. The violation of any provision of this title shall subject the person violating or the officer of the association responsible therefor to a fine of not exceeding one thousand pesos, or imprisonment of not exceeding three years, or both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court.

Title 2
TRUSTS FOR CHARITABLE USES

Sec. 410. The term "trust for charitable uses", within the intent of this Code, shall include, all the real or personal properties or funds, as well as those acquired with the fruits or income therefrom or in exchange or substitution thereof, given to or received by any person, corporation, association, foundation, or entity, except the National Government, its instrumentalities or political subdivisions, for charitable, benevolent, educational, pious, religious, or other uses for the benefit of the public at large or a particular portion thereof or for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons.

Sec. 411. The term "trustee" shall include any individual, corporation, association, foundation, or entity, except the National Government, its instrumentalities or political subdivisions, in charge of, or acting for, or concerned with the administration of, the trust referred to in the section immediately preceding and with the proper application of trust property.

Sec. 412. The term "trust property" shall include all real or personal properties or funds pertaining to the trust as well as those acquired with the fruits or income therefrom or in exchange or substitution thereof.

Sec. 413. All trustees shall, before entering in the performance of the duties of their trust, obtain a certificate of registration from the Commissioner.
Trustees who are already discharging the duties of their trust on the date this Code becomes effective may continue as such, subject to the provisions of this Code.
All provisions of this Code governing mutual benefit associations and such other provisions herein, whenever practicable and necessary, shall be applicable to trusts for charitable uses.

Chapter VIII
THE INSURANCE COMMISSIONER

Title 1
ADMINISTRATIVE AND ADJUDICATORY POWERS

Sec. 414. The Insurance Commissioner shall have the duty to see that all laws relating to insurance, insurance companies and other insurance matters, mutual benefit associations, and trusts for charitable uses are faithfully executed and to perform the duties imposed upon him by this Code, and shall, notwithstanding any existing laws to the contrary, have sole and exclusive authority to regulate the issuance and sale of variable contracts as defined in section two hundred thirty-two and to provide for the licensing of persons selling such contracts, and to issue such reasonable rules and regulations governing the same.

The Commissioner may issue such rulings, instructions, circulars, orders and decision as he may deem necessary to secure the enforcement of the provisions of this Code, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Finance. Except as otherwise specified, decisions made by the Commissioner shall be appealable to the Secretary of Finance.

Sec. 415. In addition to the administrative sanctions provided elsewhere in this Code, the Insurance Commissioner is hereby authorized, at his discretion, to impose upon the insurance companies, their directors and/or officers and/or agents, for any willful failure or refusal to comply with, or violation of any provision of this Code, or any order, instruction, regulation, or ruling of the Insurance Commissioner, or any commission or irregularities, and/or conducting business in an unsafe or unsound manner as may be determined by the Insurance Commissioner, the following:

      (a) fines not in excess of five hundred pesos a day; and

      (b) suspension, or after due hearing, removal of directors and/or officers and/or agents.

Sec. 416. The Commissioner shall have the power to adjudicate claims and complaints involving any loss, damage or liability for which in insurer may be answerable under any kind of policy or contract of insurance, or for which such insurer may be liable under a contract of suretyship, or for which a reinsurer may be sued under any contract of reinsurance it may have entered into; or for which a mutual benefit association may be held liable under the membership certificates it has issued to its members, where the amount of any such loss, damage or liability, excluding interest, cost and attorney's fees, being claimed or sued upon any kind of insurance, bond, reinsurance contract, or membership certificate does not exceed in any single claim one hundred thousand pesos.

The insurer or surety may, in the same action file a counterclaim against the insured or the obligee.
The insurer or surety may also file a cross-claim against a party for any claim arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the original action or of a counterclaim therein.

With leave of the Commissioner, an insurer or surety may file a third-party complaint against its reinsurers for indemnification, contribution, subrogation or any other relief, in respect of the transaction that is the subject matter of the original action filed with the Commissioner.

The party filing an action pursuant to the provisions of this section thereby submits his person to the jurisdiction of the Commissioner. The Commissioner shall acquire jurisdiction over the person of the impleaded party or parties in accordance with and pursuant to the provisions of the Rules of Court.

The authority to adjudicate granted to the Commissioner under this section shall be concurrent with that of the civil courts, but the filing of a complaint with the Commissioner shall preclude the civil courts from taking cognizance of a suit involving the same subject matter.
Any decision, order or ruling rendered by the Commissioner after a hearing shall have the force and effect of a judgment. Any party may appeal from a final order, ruling or decision of the Commissioner by filing with the Commissioner within thirty days from receipt of copy of such order, ruling or decision a notice of appeal to the Intermediate Appellate Court in the manner provided for in the Rules of Court for appeals from the Regional Trial Court to the Intermediate Appellate Court. (As amended by Batas Pambansa Blg. 874).

As soon as a decision, order or ruling has become final and executory, the Commissioner shall motu proprio or on motion of the interested party, issue a writ of execution requiring the sheriff or the proper officer to whom it is directed to execute said decision, order or award, pursuant to Rule thirty-nine of the Rules of Court.
For the purpose of any proceeding under this section, the Commissioner, or any officer thereof designated by him, empowered to administer oaths and affirmation, subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any books, papers, documents, or contracts or other records which are relevant or material to the inquiry. In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to any person, the Commissioner may invoke the aid of any court of first instance within the jurisdiction of which such proceeding is carried on, where such person resides or carries on his own business, in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, documents, contracts or other records. And such court may issue an order requiring such person to appear before the Commissioner, or officer designated by the Commissioner, there to produce records, if so ordered or to give testimony touching the matter in question. Any failure to obey such order of the court may be published by such court as a contempt thereof.

A full and complete record shall be kept of all proceedings had before the commissioner, or the officers thereof designated by him, and all testimony shall be taken down and transcribed by a stenographer appointed by the Commissioner.

A transcribed copy of the evidence and proceeding, or any specific part thereof, of any hearing taken by a stenographer appointed by the Commissioner, being certified by such stenographer to be a true and correct transcript of the testimony on this hearing of a particular witness, or of a specific proof thereof, carefully compared by him from his original notes, and to be a correct statement of evidence and proceeding had in such hearing so purporting to be taken and subscribed, may be received as evidence by the Commissioner and by any court with the same effect as if such stenographer were present and testified to the facts so certified. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Title 2
FEES AND OTHER SOURCES OF FUNDS

Sec. 417. (1) For the issuance or renewal of certificates of authority, licenses and certificates of registration, pursuant to pertinent provisions of this Code, the Commissioner shall collect and receive fees which shall be not less than the following:

      For each certificate of authority issued to an insurance company doing business in the Philippines, two hundred pesos.

      For each special certificate of authority issued to a servicing insurance company, one hundred pesos.

      For each license issued to a general agent of an insurance company, fifty pesos.

      For each license issued to an insurance agent, twenty-five pesos.

      For each license issued to an agent of variable contract policy, twenty-five pesos.

      For each license issued to an insurance broker, one hundred pesos.

      For each license issued to an reinsurance broker, one hundred pesos.

      For each license issued to an insurance adjuster, one hundred pesos.

      For each certificate of registration issued to an actuary, fifty pesos.

      For each certificate of registration issued to a resident agent, fifty pesos.

      For each license issued to a rating organization, one hundred pesos.

      For each certificate of registration issued to a non-life company underwriter, fifty pesos.

      For each license issued to a mutual benefit association, ten pesos.

      For each certificate of registration issued to a trust for charitable uses, ten pesos.

All certificates of authority and all other licenses, as well as all certificates of registration, issued to any person, partnership, association or corporation under the pertinent provisions of this Code for which no expiration date has been prescribed, shall expire on the last day of June of each year and shall be renewed annually upon application therefor and payment of the corresponding fee, if the licensee or holder of such license or certificate is continuing to comply with all the applicable provisions of existing laws, and of rules, instructions, orders and decisions of the Commissioner.

(2) For the filing of the annual statement referred to in section two hundred twenty-three, the Commissioner shall collect and receive from the insurance company so filing a fee of five hundred pesos: Provided, That a fine of one hundred pesos shall be imposed and collected by the Commissioner for each week of delay, or any fraction thereof, in the filing of the annual statement.

For the filing of annual statement referred to in section four hundred, the Commissioner shall collect and receive from the mutual benefit association so filing a fee of ten pesos: Provided, That a fine of ten pesos shall be imposed and collected by the Commissioner for each week of delay, or any fraction thereof, in the filing of the annual statement.

(3) For the examination prescribed in section two hundred forty-six, the Commissioner shall collect and receive fees according to the amount of its total assets, in the case of a domestic company, or of its assets in the Philippines, in the case of a foreign company, as follows:

      (a) Two million pesos or more but less than four million pesos, Four hundred pesos;

      (b) Four million pesos or more but less than six million pesos, Eight hundred pesos;

      (c) Six million pesos or more but less than eight million pesos, One thousand two hundred pesos;

      (d) Eight million pesos or more but less than ten million pesos, One thousand six hundred pesos;

      (e) Ten million pesos or more, Two thousand pesos;
      Provided, That if the said examination is made in places outside the Metropolitan Manila area, besides these fees, the Commissioner shall require of the company examined the payment of the actual and necessary travelling and subsistence expenses of the examiner or examiners concerned.

For the examination prescribed in section three hundred ninety-nine, the Commissioner shall collect and receive a minimum fee of one hundred pesos from the mutual benefit association examined: Provided, That if such association has total assets of more than one hundred thousand pesos, an additional fee of ten pesos for every fifty thousand pesos in excess thereof shall be imposed: Provided, further, That such fee shall not exceed two thousand pesos.

(4) For the filing of an application to withdraw from the Philippines under title eighteen, the Commissioner shall collect and receive from the foreign company so withdrawing a fee of one thousand pesos.

(5) The Commissioner may fix and collect fees or charges for documents, transcripts, or other materials which may be furnished by him not in excess of reasonable cost. (As amended by Presidential Decree No. 1455).

Sec. 418. If the total expenses of the Insurance Commissioner for every fiscal year exceed the aggregate amount of the fees collected under the pertinent provisions of this Code, the excess shall be charged against the Insurance Fund, which shall hereafter be created out of the proceeds of taxes on insurance premiums mentioned in section two hundred fifty-five of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended: Provided, however, That pending the creation of said Insurance Fund, the provisions of section two, three and four of Republic Act Numbered Two Hundred Seventy-Five, shall continue to remain in force and effect.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Sec. 419. Any person, company or corporation subject to the supervision and control of the Commissioner who violates any provision of this Code, for which no penalty is provided, shall be deemed guilty of a penal offense, and upon conviction be punished by a fine not exceeding ten thousand pesos or imprisonment of six months, or both, at the discretion of the court.

If the offense is committed by a company or corporation, the officers, directors, or other persons responsible for its operation, management, or administration, unless it can be proved that they have taken no part in the commission of the offense, shall likewise be guilty of a penal offense, and upon conviction be punished by a fine not exceeding ten thousand pesos or imprisonment of six months, or both, at the discretion of the court.

Sec. 420. All criminal actions for the violation of any of the provisions of this Code shall prescribed after three years from the discovery of such violation: Provided, That such actions shall in any event prescribe after ten years from the commission of such violation.

Sec. 421. Any person, partnership, association or corporation heretofore authorized, licensed or registered by the Insurance Commissioner shall be deemed to have been authorized, licensed or registered under the provisions of this Code and shall be governed by the provisions thereof: Provided, however, That where any such person, partnership, association or corporation is affected by the new requirements of this Code, said person, partnership association or corporation shall, unless otherwise herein provided, be given a period of one year from the effectivity of this Code within which to comply with the same.

Sec. 422. Except as expressly provided by this Code, all laws or parts thereof inconsistent with any provision of this Code shall be deemed repealed.

Sec. 423. Should any provisions of this Code or any part thereof be declared invalid, the other provisions, so far as they are separable from the invalid ones, shall remain in force.

Sec. 424. This Code shall take effect immediately.

    DONE in the City of Manila, this 18th day of December, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-four.
 
FERDINAND E. MARCOS
President
 

(As amended, and as modified particularly by PD No. 1, Integrated Reorganization Plan and EO 546)

CHAPTER I

ORGANIZATION

SECTION 1.  This Act shall be known as the “Public Service Act.”

SECTION 2.  There is created under the Department of Justice a commission which shall be designated and known as the Public Service Commission, composed of one Public Service Commissioner and five Associate Commissioners, and which shall be vested with the powers and duties hereafter specified.  Whenever the word “Commission” is used in this Act, it shall be held to mean the Public Service Commission, and whenever the word “Commissioner” is used in this Act it shall be held to mean the Public Service Commissioner or anyone of the Associate Commissioners.  The Public Service Commissioner and the Associate Public Service Commissioners shall be natural born citizens and residents of the Philippines, not under thirty years of age; members of the Bar of the Philippines, with at least five years of law practice or five years of employment in the government service requiring a lawyer’s diploma; and shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments of the Congress of the Philippines:  Provided, however, That the present Commissioner and the personnel of the Commission shall continue in office without the necessity of re-appointment.  The Commissioners shall have the rank and privilege of retirement of Judges of the Courts of First Instance.  (As amended by Republic Act Nos. 178 and 2677)

SECTION 3.  The Commissioner and Associate Commissioners shall hold office until they reach the age of seventy years, or until removed in accordance with the procedures prescribed in section one hundred and seventy-three of Act Numbered Twenty-seven hundred and eleven, known as the Revised Administrative Code:  Provided, however, That upon retirement any Commissioner of Associate Commissioner shall be entitled to all retirement benefits and privileges for Judges of the Courts of First Instance or under the retirement law to which he may be entitled on the date of his retirement.  In case of the absence, for any reason, of the Public Service Commissioner, the Associate Commissioner with seniority of appointment shall act as Commissioner.  If on account of absence, illness, or incapacity of any of three Commissioners, or whenever by reason of temporary disability of any Commissioner or of a vacancy occurring therein, the requisite number of Commissioners necessary to render a decision or issue an order in any case is not present, or in the event of a tie vote among the Commissioners, the Secretary of Justice may designate such number of Judges of the Courts of First Instance, or such number of attorneys of the legal division of the Commission, as may be necessary to sit temporarily as Commissioners in the Public Service Commission.

The Public Service Commission shall sit individually or as a body en banc or in two divisions of three Commissioners each.  The Public Service Commissioner shall preside when the Commission sits en banc and in one division.  In the other division, the Associate Commissioner with seniority of appointment in that division shall preside.  Five Commissioners shall constitute a quorum for sessions en banc and two Commissioners shall constitute a quorum for the sessions of a division.  In the absence of a quorum, the session shall be adjourned until the requisite number is present.

All the powers herein vested upon the Commission shall be considered vested upon any of the Commissioners, acting either individually or jointly as hereinafter provided.  The Commissioners shall equitably divide among themselves all pending cases and those that may hereafter be submitted to the Commissioner, in such manner and form as they may determine, and shall proceed to hear and determine the case assigned to each or to their respective divisions, or to the Commission en banc as follows:  uncontested cases, except those pertaining to the fixing of rates, shall be decided by one Commissioner; contested cases and all cases involving the fixing of rates shall be decided by the Commission in division and the concurrence of at least two Commissioners in the division shall be necessary for the promulgation of a decision or non-interlocutory order in these cases:  Provided, however, That any motion for reconsideration of a decision or non-interlocutory order of any Commissioner or division shall be heard directly by the Commission en banc and the concurrence of at least four Commissioners shall be necessary for the promulgation of a final decision or order resolving such motion for reconsideration.  (As amended by Republic Act Nos. 723 and 2677)

SECTION 4.  The Public Service Commissioner shall receive an annual compensation of thirteen thousand pesos; and each of the Associate Commissioners an annual compensation of twelve thousand pesos.  The Commissioners shall be assisted by one chief attorney, one finance and rate regulation officer, one chief utilities regulation engineer, one chief accountant, one transportation regulation chief, one secretary of the Public Service Commission, and three public utilities advisers who shall receive an annual compensation of not less than ten thousand eight hundred pesos each; five assistant chiefs of division who shall receive an annual compensation of not less than nine thousand six hundred pesos each; twelve attorneys who shall receive an annual compensation of not less than nine thousand pesos each; and a technical and confidential staff to be composed of two certified public accounts, two electrical engineers, two mechanical or communication engineers, and two special assistants who shall receive an annual compensation of not less than seven thousand two hundred pesos each.  (As amended by Republic Act Nos. 723, 2677 and 3792)

SECTION 5.  The Public Service Commissioner, the Associate Public Service Commissioners, and all other officers and employees of the Public Service Commission shall enjoy the same privileges and rights as the officer and employees of the classified civil service of the Government of the Philippines.  They shall also be entitled to receive from the Government of the Philippines their necessary traveling expenses while traveling on the business of the Commission, which shall be paid on proper voucher therefor, approved by the Secretary of Justice, out of funds appropriated for the contingent expenses of the Commission.

When the exigency of the service so requires and with the approval of the Secretary of Justice, and subject to the provisions of Commonwealth Act Numbered Two hundred forty-six, as amended, funds may be set aside from the appropriations provided for the Commission and/or from the fees collected under Section forty of this Act to defray the expenses to be incurred by the Public Service Commissioner or any of the Associate Commissioners, officers or employees of the Commission to be designated by the Commissioner, with the approval of the Secretary of Justice, in the study of modern trends in supervision and regulation of public services.  (As amended by Republic Act No. 3792)

SECTION 6.  The Secretary of Justice, upon recommendation of the Public Service Commissioner, shall appoint all subordinate officers and employees of the Commission as may be provided in the Appropriation Act.  The Public Service Commissioner shall have general executive control, direction, and supervision over the work of the Commission and of its members, body and personnel, and over all administrative business.  (As amended by Republic Act Nos. 178 and 3792)

SECTION 7.  The Secretary of the Commission, under the direction of the Commissioner, shall have charge of the administrative business of the Commission and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him.  He shall be the recorder and official reporter of the proceedings of the Commission and shall have authority to administer oaths in all matters coming under the jurisdiction of the Commission.  He shall be the custodian of the records, maps, profiles, tariffs, itineraries, reports, and any other documents and papers filed with the Commission or entrusted to his care and shall be responsible therefor to the Commission.  He shall have authority to designate from time to time any of his delegates to perform the duties of Deputy Secretary with any of the Commissioners.

SECTION 8.  The Commission shall furnish the Secretary such of its findings and decisions as in its judgment may be of general public interest; the Secretary shall compile the same for the purpose of publication in a series of volumes to be designated “Reports of the Public Service Commission of the Philippines,” which shall be published in such form and manner as may be best adapted for public information and use, and such authorized publications shall be competent evidence of the reports and decisions of the Commission therein contained without any further proof or authentication thereof.

SECTION 9.  No member or employee of the Commission shall have any official or professional relation with any public service as herein defined, or hold any office of profit or trust with the Government of the Philippines.

SECTION 10.  The Commission shall have its office in the City of Manila or at such other place as may be designated, and may hold hearings on any proceedings at such times and places, within the Philippines, as it may provide by order in writing:  Provided, That during the months of April and May of each year, at least three Commissioners shall be on vacation in such manner that once every two years at least three of them shall be on duty during April and May:  Provided, however, That in the interest of public service, the Secretary of Justice may require any or all the Commissioners not on duty to render services and perform their duties during the vacation months.  (As amended by Republic Act Nos. 176 and 3792)

SECTION 11.  The Commission shall have the power to make needful rules for its Government and other proceedings not inconsistent with this Act and shall adopt a common seal, and judicial notice shall be taken for such seal.  True copies of said rules and other amendments shall be promptly furnished to the Bureau of Printing and shall be forthwith published in the Official Gazette.

CHAPTER II

JURISDICTION, POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE COMMISSION

SECTION 13.  (a) The Commission shall have jurisdiction, supervision, and control over all public services and their franchises, equipment, and other properties, and in the exercise of its authority, it shall have the necessary powers and the aid of the public force:  Provided, That public services owned or operated by government entities or government-owned or controlled corporations shall be regulated by the Commission in the same way as privately-owned public services, but certificates of public convenience or certificates of public convenience and necessity shall not be required of such entities or corporations:  And provided, further, That it shall have no authority to require steamboats, motor ships and steamship lines, whether privately-owned, or owned or operated by any Government controlled corporation or instrumentality to obtain certificate of public convenience or to prescribe their definite routes or lines of service.

(b) The term “public service” includes every person that now or hereafter may own, operate, manage, or control in the Philippines, for hire or compensation, with general or limited clientele, whether permanent, occasional or accidental, and done for general business purposes, any common carrier, railroad, street railway, traction railway, sub-way motor vehicle, either for freight or passenger, or both with or without fixed route and whether may be its classification, freight or carrier service of any class, express service, steamboat or steamship line, pontines, ferries, and water craft, engaged in the transportation of passengers or freight or both, shipyard, marine railways, marine repair shop, [warehouse] wharf or dock, ice plant, ice-refrigeration plant, canal, irrigation system, gas, electric light, heat and power water supply and power, petroleum, sewerage system, wire or wireless communications system, wire or wireless broadcasting stations and other similar public services:  Provided, however, That a person engaged in agriculture, not otherwise a public service, who owns a motor vehicle and uses it personally and/or enters into a special contract whereby said motor vehicle is offered for hire or compensation to a third party or third parties engaged in agriculture, not itself or themselves a public service, for operation by the latter for a limited time and for a specific purpose directly connected with the cultivation of his or their farm, the transportation, processing, and marketing of agricultural products of such third party or third parties shall not be considered as operating a public service for the purposes of this Act.

(c) The word “person” includes every individual, co-partnership, joint-stock company or corporation, whether domestic or foreign, their lessees, trustees, or receivers, as well as any municipality, province, city, government-owned or controlled corporation, or agency of the Government of the Philippines, and whatever other persons or entities that may own or possess or operate public services.  (As amended by Commonwealth Act 454 and R.A. No. 2677)

SECTION 14.  The following are exempted from the provisions of the preceding section:

(a) Warehouses;

(b) Vehicles drawn by animals and bancas moved by oar or sail, and tugboats and lighters;

(c) Airships within the Philippines except as regards the fixing of their maximum rates on freight and passengers;

(d) Radio companies except with respect to the fixing of rates;

(e) Public services owned or operated by any instrumentality of the National Government or by any government-owned or controlled corporation, except with respect to the fixing of rates.  (As amended by Commonwealth Act 454, R.A. No. 2031, and R.A. No. 2677)

SECTION 15.  With the exception of those enumerated in the preceding section, no public service shall operate in the Philippines without possessing a valid and subsisting certificate from the Public Service Commission known as “certificate of public convenience,” or “certificate of public convenience and necessity,” as the case may be, to the effect that the operation of said service and the authorization to do business will promote the public interests in a proper and suitable manner.

The Commission may prescribe as a condition for the issuance of the certificate provided in the preceding paragraph that the service can be acquired by the Republic of the Philippines or any instrumentality thereof upon payment of the cost price of its useful equipment, less reasonable depreciation; and likewise, that the certificate shall be valid only for a definite period of time; and that the violation of any of these conditions shall produce the immediate cancellation of the certificate without the necessity of any express action on the part of the Commission.

In estimating the depreciation, the effect of the use of the equipment, its actual condition, the age of the model, or other circumstances affecting its value in the market shall be taken into consideration.

The foregoing is likewise applicable to any extension or amendment of certificates actually in force and to those which may hereafter be issued, to permit to modify itineraries and time schedules of public services, and to authorizations to renew and increase equipment and properties.

SECTION 16.  Proceedings of the Commission, upon notice and hearing.  – The Commission shall have power, upon proper notice and hearing in accordance with the rules and provisions of this Act, subject to the limitations and exceptions mentioned and saving provisions to the contrary:

(a) To issue certificates which shall be known as certificates of public convenience, authorizing the operation of public service within the Philippines whenever the Commission finds that the operation of the public service proposed and the authorization to do business will promote the public interest in a proper and suitable manner.  Provided, That thereafter, certificates of public convenience and certificates of public convenience and necessity will be granted only to citizens of the Philippines or of the United States or to corporations, co-partnerships, associations or joint-stock companies constituted and organized under the laws of the Philippines; Provided, That sixty per centum of the stock or paid-up capital of any such corporations, co-partnership, association or joint-stock company must belong entirely to citizens of the Philippines or of the United States:  Provided, further, That no such certificates shall be issued for a period of more than fifty years.

(b) To approve, subject to constitutional limitations any franchise or privilege granted under the provisions of Act No. Six Hundred and Sixty-seven, as amended by Act No. One Thousand and twenty-two, by any political subdivision of the Philippines when, in the judgment of the Commission, such franchise or privilege will properly conserve the public interests, and the Commission shall in so approving impose such conditions as to construction, equipment, maintenance, service, or operation as the public interests and convenience may reasonably require, and to issue certificates of public convenience and necessity when such is required or provided by any law or franchise.

(c) To fix and determine individual or joint rates, tolls, charges, classifications, or schedules thereof, as well as commutation, mileage, kilometrage, and other special rates which shall be imposed observed and followed thereafter by any public service:  Provided, That the Commission may, in its discretion, approve rates proposed by public services provisionally and without necessity of any hearing; but it shall call a hearing thereon within thirty days, thereafter, upon publication and notice to the concerns operating in the territory affected:  Provided, further, That in case the public service equipment of an operator is used principally or secondarily for the promotion of a private business, the net profits of said private business shall be considered in relation with the public service of such operator for the purpose of fixing the rates.

(d) To fix just and reasonable standards, classifications, regulations, practices, measurement, or service to be furnished, imposed, observed, and followed thereafter by any public service.

(e) To ascertain and fix adequate and serviceable standards for the measurement of quantity, quality, pressure, initial voltage, or other condition pertaining to the supply of the product or service rendered by any public service, and to prescribe reasonable regulations for the examination and test of such product or service and for the measurement thereof.

(f) To establish reasonable rules, regulations, instructions, specifications, and standards, to secure the accuracy of all meters and appliances for measurements.

(g) To compel any public service to furnish safe, adequate, and proper service as regards the manner of furnishing the same as well as the maintenance of the necessary material and equipment.

(h) To require any public service to establish, construct, maintain, and operate any reasonable extension of its existing facilities, where in the judgment of said Commission, such extension is reasonable and practicable and will furnish sufficient business to justify the construction and maintenance of the same and when the financial condition of the said public service reasonably warrants the original expenditure required in making and operating such extension.

(i) To direct any railroad, street railway or traction company to establish and maintain at any junction or point of connection or intersection with any other line of said road or track, or with any other line of any other railroad, street railway or traction to promote, such just and reasonable connection as shall be necessary to promote the convenience of shippers of property, or of passengers, and in like manner direct any railroad, street railway, or traction company engaged in carrying merchandise, to construct, maintain and operate, upon reasonable terms, a switch connection with any private sidetrack which may be constructed by any shipper to connect with the railroad, street railway or traction company line where, in the judgment of the Commission, such connection is reasonable and practicable and can be out in with safety and will furnish sufficient business to justify the construction and maintenance of the same.

(j) To authorize, in its discretion, any railroad, street railway or traction company to lay its tracks across the tracks of any other railroad, street railway or traction company or across any public highway.

(k) To direct any railroad or street railway company to install such safety devices or about such other reasonable measures as may in the judgment of the Commission be necessary for the protection of the public are passing grade crossing of (1) public highways and railroads, (2) public highways and streets railway, or (3) railways and street railways.

(l) To fix and determine proper and adequate rates of depreciation of the property of any public service which will be observed in a proper and adequate depreciation account to be carried for the protection of stockholders, bondholders or creditors in accordance with such rules, regulations, and form of account as the Commission may prescribe.  Said rates shall be sufficient to provide the amounts required over and above the expense of maintenance to keep such property in a state of efficiency corresponding to the progress of the industry.  Each public service shall conform its depreciation accounts to the rates so determined and fixed, and shall set aside the moneys so provided for out of its earnings and carry the same in a depreciation fund.  The income from investments of money in such fund shall likewise be carried in such fund.  This fund shall not be expended otherwise than for depreciation, improvements, new construction, extensions or conditions to the properly of such public service.

(m) To amend, modify or revoke at any time certificate issued under the provisions of this Act, whenever the facts and circumstances on the strength of which said certificate was issued have been misrepresented or materially changed.

(n) To suspend or revoke any certificate issued under the provisions of this Act whenever the holder thereof has violated or willfully and contumaciously refused to comply with any order rule or regulation of the Commission or any provision of this Act:  Provided, That the Commission, for good cause, may prior to the hearing suspend for a period not to exceed thirty days any certificate or the exercise of any right or authority issued or granted under this Act by order of the Commission, whenever such step shall in the judgment of the Commission be necessary to avoid serious and irreparable damage or inconvenience to the public or to private interests.

(o) To fix, determine, and regulate, as the convenience of the state may require, a special type for auto-busses, trucks, and motor trucks to be hereafter constructed, purchased, and operated by operators after the approval of this Act; to fix and determine a special registration fee for auto-buses, trucks, and motor trucks so constructed, purchased and operated:  Provided, That said fees shall be smaller than more those charged for autobuses, trucks, and motor trucks of types not made regulation under the subsection.

SECTION 17.  Proceedings of Commission without previous hearing.  – The Commission shall have power without previous hearing, subject to established limitations and exception and saving provisions to the contrary:

(a) To investigate, upon its own initiative, or upon complaint in writing, any matter concerning any public service as regards matters under its jurisdiction; to require any public service to furnish safe, adequate, and proper service as the public interest may require and warrant; to enforce compliance with any standard, rule, regulation, order or other requirement of this Act or of the Commission, and to prohibit or prevent any public service as herein defined from operating without having first secured a certificate of public convenience or public necessity and convenience, as the case may be and require existing public services to pay the fees provided for in this Act for the issuance of the proper certificate of public convenience or certificate of public necessity and convenience, as the case may be, under the penalty, in the discretion by the Commission, of the revocation and cancellation of any acquired rights.

(b) To require any public service to pay the actual expenses incurred by the Commission in any investigation if it shall be found in the same that any rate, tool, charge, schedule, regulation, practice, act or service thereof is in violation of any provision of this Act or any certificate, order, rule, regulation or requirement issued or established by the Commission.  The Commission may also assess against any public service costs not to exceed twenty-five pesos with reference to such investigation.

(c) From time to time appraise and value the property of any public service, whenever in the judgment of the Commission it shall be necessary so to do, for the purpose of carrying out any of the provisions of this Act, and in making such valuation the Commission may have access to and use any books, documents, or records in the possession of any department, bureau, office, or board of the government of the Philippines or any political subdivision thereof.

(d) To provide, on motion by or at the request of any consumer or user of a public service, for the examination and test of any appliance used for the measuring of any product or service of a public service, and for that purpose, by its agents, experts, or examiners to enter upon any premises where said appliances may be, and other premises of the public service, for the purpose of setting up and using on said premises any apparatus necessary therefor.  and to fix the fees to be paid by any consumer or user who may apply to the Commission for such examination or test to be made, and if the appliance be found defective or incorrect to the disadvantage of the consumer or user to require the fees paid to be refunded to the consumer or user by the public service concerned.

(e) To permit any street railway or traction company to change its existing gauge to standard steam railroad gauge, upon such terms and conditions as the Commission shall prescribe.

(f) To grant to any public service special permits to make extra or special trips within the territory covered by its certificates of public convenience, and to make special excursion trips outside of its own territory if the public interest or special circumstances required it:  Provided, however, that in case a public service cannot render such extra service on its own line or in its own territory, a special permit for such extra service may be granted to any other public service.

(g) To require any public service to keep its books, records, and accounts so as to afford an intelligent understanding of the conduct of its business and to that end to require every such public service of the same class to adopt a uniform system of accounting.  Such system conform to any system approved and confirmed by the Auditor General.

(h) To require any public service to furnish annual reports of finances and operations.  Such reports shall set forth in detail the capital stock issued, the amounts of said capital stock paid up and the form of payment thereof; the dividends paid, the surplus, if any and the number of stockholders, the consolidated and pending obligations and the interest paid thereon; the cost and value of the property of the operator; concessions or franchises and equipment; the number of employees and salaries paid to each class; the accidents to passengers, employees, and other person, and the causes thereof; the annual expenditures on improvements; the manner of their investment and nature of such improvements; the receipts and profits in each of the branches of the business and of whatever source; the operating and other expenses; the balance of profits and losses; and a complete statement of the annual financial operations of the operator, including an annual balance sheet.  Such reports shall also contain any information which the Commission may require concerning freight and passenger rates, or agreements, compromises or contracts affecting the same.  Said reports shall cover a period of twelve months, ending on December thirty-first of each year, and shall be sworn to by the officer or functionary of the public service authorized therefor.  The Commission shall also have power to require from time to time special reports containing such information as above provided for or on other matters as the Commission may deem necessary or advisable.

(i) To require every public service to file with the Commission a statement in writing, verified by the oaths of the owner or the president and the secretary thereof, if a corporation, setting forth the name, title of office or portion, and post-office address, and the authority, power and duties of every officer, member of the board of directors, trustees executive committee, superintendent, chief or head of construction and operation thereof, in such form as to disclose the source and origin of each administrative act, rule, decision, order or other action of the operator of such public service; and, within ten days after any change is made in the title of, or authority, powers or duties appertaining to any such office or position, or the person holding the same, filed with the Commission a like statement, verified in like manner, setting forth such change.

(j) To require any public service to comply with the laws of the Philippines and with any provincial resolution or municipal ordinance relating thereto and to conform to the duties imposed upon it thereby or by the provisions of its own character, whether obtained under any general or special law of the Philippines.

(k) To investigate any or all accidents that may occur on the property of any public service or directly or indirectly arising from or connected with its maintenance or operation in the Philippines; to require any public service to give the Commission immediate and effective notice of all any such accidents, and to make such order or recommendation with respect thereto as the public interest may warrant or require.

(l) To require every public service s herein defined to file within complete schedules of every classification employed and of every individual or joint rate, toll fare or charge made, charged or exacted by it for any product supplied or service rendered within the Philippines and, in the case of public carriers, to file with it a statement showing the itineraries or routes served as specified in such requirement.

CHAPTER III

OPERATORS OF PUBLIC SERVICES REGULATIONS AND PROHIBITIONS

SECTION 18.  It shall be unlawful for any individual, co-partnership, association, corporation or joint-stock company, their lessees, trustees or receivers appointed by any court whatsoever, or any municipality, province, or other department of the Government of the Philippines to engage in any public service business without having first secured from the Commission a certificate of public convenience or certificate of public convenience and necessity as provided for in this Act, except grantees of legislative franchises expressly exempting such grantees from the requirement of securing a certificate from this Commission as well as concerns at present existing expressly exempted from the jurisdiction of the Commission, either totally or in part, by the provisions of section thirteen of this Act.

SECTION 19.  Unlawful Acts.  – It shall be unlawful for any public service:

(a) To provide or maintain any service that is unsafe, improper, or inadequate or withhold or refuse any service which can reasonably be demanded and furnished, as found and determined by the Commission in a final order which shall be conclusive and shall take effect in accordance with this Act, upon appeal of otherwise.

(b) To make or give, directly or indirectly, by itself or through its agents, attorneys or brokers, or any of them, discounts or rebates on authorized rates, or grant credit for the payment of freight charges, or any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage to any person of corporation or to any locality or to any particular description of traffic or service, or subject any particular person or corporation or locality or any particular description of traffic to any prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever; to adopt, maintain, or enforce any regulation, practice or measurement which shall be found or determined by the Commission to be unjust, unreasonable, unduly preferential or unjustly discriminatory in a final order which shall be conclusive and shall take effect in accordance with the provisions of this Act, upon repeal or otherwise.

(c) To refuse or neglect, when requested by the Director of Posts or his authorized representative, to carry public mail on the regular trips of any public land transportation service maintained or operated by any such public service; upon such terms and conditions and for a consideration in such amount as may be agreed upon between the Director of Posts and the public service carrier of fixed by the Commission in the absence of an agreement between the Director of Posts and the carrier.  In case the Director of Posts and public service carrier are unable to agree on the amount of the compensation to be paid for the carriage of the mail, the Director of Posts shall forthwith request the Commission to fix a just and reasonable compensation for such carriage and the same shall be promptly fixed by the Commission in accordance with Section sixteen of this Act.

SECTION 20.  Acts requiring the approval of the Commission.  – Subject to established limitations and exceptions and saving provisions to the contrary, it shall be unlawful for any public service or for the owner, lessee or operator thereof, without the approval and authorization of the Commission previously had –

(a) To adopt, establish, fix, impose, maintain, collect or carry into effect any individual or joint rates, commutation, mileage or other special rate, toll, fare, charge, classification or itinerary.  The Commission shall approve only those that are just and reasonable and not any that are unjustly discriminatory or unduly preferential, only upon reasonable notice to the public services and other parties concerned, giving them a reasonable opportunity to be heard and the burden of the proof to show that the proposed rates or regulations are just and reasonable shall be upon the public service proposing the same.

(b) To establish, construct, maintain, or operate new units or extend existing facilities or make any other addition to or general extension of the service.

(c) To abandon any railroad station or stop the sale of passenger tickets, or cease to maintain an agent to receive and discharge freight at any station now or hereafter established at which passenger tickets are now or may hereafter be regularly sold, or at which such agent is now or may hereafter be maintained, or make any permanent change in its time tables or itineraries on any railroad or in its service.

(d) To lay any railroad or street railway track across any highway, so as to make a new crossing at grade, or cross the tracks of any other railroad or street railway, provided, that this subsection shall not apply to replacements of lawfully existing tracks.

(e) Hereafter to issue any stock or stock certificates representing an increase of capital; or issue any share of stock without par value; or issue any bonds or other evidence of indebtedness payable in more than one year from the issuance thereof, provided that it shall be the duty of the Commission, after hearing, to approve any such issue maturing in more than one year from the date thereof, when satisfied that the same is to be made in accordance with law, and the purpose of such issue be approved by the Commission.

(f)  To capitalize any franchise in excess of the amount, inclusive of any tax or annual charge, actually paid to the Government of the Philippines or any political subdivision thereof as the consideration of said franchise; capitalize any contract for consolidation, merger or lease, or issue any bonds or other evidence of indebtedness against or as a lien upon any contract for consolidation, merger, or lease:  Provided, however, That the provisions of this section shall not prevent the issuance of stock, bonds, or other evidence of indebtedness subject to the approval of the Commission by any lawfully merged or consolidated public services not in contravention of the provisions of this section.

(g) To sell, alienate, mortgage, encumber or lease its property, franchises, certificates, privileges, or rights or any part thereof; or merge or consolidate its property, franchises privileges or rights, or any part thereof, with those of any other public service.  The approval herein required shall be given, after notice to the public and hearing the persons interested at a public hearing, if it be shown that there are just and reasonable grounds for making the mortgaged or encumbrance, for liabilities of more than one year maturity, or the sale, alienation, lease, merger, or consolidation to be approved, and that the same are not detrimental to the public interest, and in case of a sale, the date on which the same is to be consummated shall be fixed in the order of approval:  Provided, however, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the transaction from being negotiated or completed before its approval or to prevent the sale, alienation, or lease by any public service of any of its property in the ordinary course of its business.

(h) To sell or register in its books the transfer or sale of shares of its capital stock, if the result of that sale in itself or in connection with another previous sale, shall be to vest in the transferee more than forty per centum of the subscribed capital of said public service.

Any transfer made in violation of this provision shall be void and of no effect and shall not be registered in the books of the public service corporation.  Nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the holding of shares lawfully acquired.  (As amended by Commonwealth Act No. 454)

(i) To sell, alienate or in any manner transfer shares of its capital stock to any alien if the result of that sale, alienation, or transfer in itself or in connection with another previous sale shall be the reduction to less than sixty per centum of the capital stock belonging to Philippine citizens.  Such sale, alienation or transfer shall be void and of no effect and shall be sufficient cause for ordering the cancellation of the certificate.

(j) To issue, give or tender, directly or indirectly, any free ticket free pass or free or reduced rate of transportation for passengers, except to the following persons:

(1) officers, agents, employees, attorneys, physicians and surgeons of said public service, and members of their families;

(2) inmates of hospitals or charity institutions, and persons engaged in charitable work;

(3) indigent, destitute, and homeless persons when transported by charitable societies or hospitals, and the necessary agents employed in such transportation;

(4) the necessary caretakers, going and returning, of livestock, poultry, fruit, and other freight under uniform and non-discriminatory regulation;
(5) employees of sleeping car corporations, express corporations and telegraph and telephone corporations, railway and marine mail service employees, when traveling in the course of their official duty;

(6) post-office inspectors, customs officers and inspectors, and immigration inspectors when engaged in inspection;

(7) witnesses attending any legal investigation in which the public service is an interested party;

(8) persons injured in accidents or wrecks, and physicians and nurses attending such persons;

(9) peace officers and men of regularly constituted fire departments.  (As amended by Commonwealth Act No. 454)

(k) Adopt, maintain, or apply practices or measures, rules or regulations to which the public shall be subject in its relations with the public service.

CHAPTER IV

PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS

SECTION 21.  Every public service violating or failing to comply with the terms and conditions of any certificate or any orders, decisions or regulations of the Commission shall be subject to a fine of not exceeding two hundred pesos per day for every day during which such default or violation continues; and the Commission is hereby authorized and empowered to impose such fine, after due notice and hearing.

The fines so imposed shall be paid to the Government of the Philippines through the Commission, and failure to pay the fine in any case within the same specified in the order or decision of the Commission shall be deemed good and sufficient reason for the suspension of the certificate of said public service until payment shall be made.  Payment may also be enforced by appropriate action brought in a court of competent jurisdiction.

The remedy provided in this section shall not be a bar to, or affect any other remedy provided in this Act but shall be cumulative and additional to such remedy or remedies.

SECTION 22.  Observance of the orders, decisions, and regulations of the Commission and of the terms and conditions of any certificate may also be enforced by mandamus or injunction in appropriate cases, or by action to compel the specific performance of the orders, decisions, and regulations so made, or of the duties imposed by law upon such public service:  Provided, That the Commission may compromise any case that arise under this Act in such manner and for such amount as it may deem just and reasonable.

SECTION 23.  Any public service corporation that shall perform, commit, or do any act or thing forbidden or prohibited or shall neglect, fail or omit to do or perform any act or thing herein to be done or performed, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding twenty five thousand pesos, or by imprisonment not exceeding five years, or both, in the discretion of the court.

SECTION 24.  Any person who shall knowingly and willfully perform, commit, or do, or participate in performing, committing, or doing, or who shall knowingly and willfully cause, participate, or join with others in causing any public service corporation or company to do, perform or commit, or who shall advice, solicit, persuade, or knowingly and willfully instruct, direct, or order any officer, agent, or employee of any public service corporation or company to perform, commit, or do any act or thing forbidden or prohibited by this Act, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding two thousand pesos, or imprisonment not exceeding two years, or both, in the discretion of the court:  Provided, however, That for operating a private passenger automobile as a public service without having a certificate of public convenience for the same the offender shall be subject to the penalties provided for in section sixty-seven (j) of Act numbered thirty-nine hundred an ninety-two.

SECTION 25.  Any person who shall knowingly and willfully neglect, fail, or omit to do or perform, or who shall knowingly and willfully cause or join or participate with others in causing any public service corporation or company to neglect, fail or omit to do or perform, or who shall advise, solicit, or persuade, or knowingly and willfully instruct, direct, or order any officer, agent, or employee of any public service corporation or company to neglect, fail, or omit to do any act or thing required to be done by this Act, shall be published by a fine not exceeding two thousand pesos or by imprisonment not exceeding two years, or both, in the discretion of the court.

SECTION 26.  Any person who shall destroy, injure, or interfere with any apparatus or appliance owned or operated by to in charge of the Commission or its agents, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be published by a fine not exceeding one thousand pesos or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both in the discretion of the court.

Any public service permitting the destruction, injury to, or interference with, any such apparatus or appliances shall forfeit a sum not exceeding four thousand pesos for each offense.

SECTION 27.  This Act shall not have the effect to release or waive any right of action by the Commission or by any person for any right, penalty, or forfeiture which may have arisen or which may arise, under any of the laws of the Philippines, and any penalty or forfeiture enforceable under this Act shall not be a bar to or affect a recovery for a right, or affect or bar any criminal proceedings against any public service or person or persons operating such public services, its officers, directors, agents, or employees.

SECTION 28.  Violations of the orders, decisions, and regulations of the Commission and of the terms and conditions of any certificate issued by the Commission shall prescribe after sixty days, and violations of the provisions of this Act shall prescribe after one hundred and eighty days.

CHAPTER V

PROCEDURE AND REVIEW

SECTION 29.  All hearings and investigations before the Commission shall be governed by rules adopted by the Commission, and in the conduct thereof the Commission shall not be bound by the technical rules of legal evidence:  Provided, That the Public Service Commissioner or associate commissioners may summarily punish for contempt by a fine not exceeding two hundred pesos or by imprisonment not exceeding ten days, or both, any person guilty of misconduct in the presence of the Commissioner or associate commissioners or so near the same as to interrupt the hearing or session or any proceeding before them, including cases in which a person present at a hearing, session, or investigation held by either of the commissioners refuses to be sworn as a witness or to answer as such when lawfully required to do so.  To enforce the provisions of this section, the Commission may, if necessary, request the assistance of the municipal police for the execution of any order made for said purpose.

(1) While the Commission is authorized to make rules for the conduct of their business, it could not set at naught the fundamental rule of all proceedings that only parties having a real interest will be heard.

(2) A party not affected or prejudiced cannot file an opposition.

(3) One public service corporation cannot assume the name and be substituted in the place of another public service corporation.

(4) A legal representative of the estate of a deceased applicant may be substituted for the latter.  If the right consists in the prosecution of unfinished proceedings upon an application for a certificate of public convenience of the deceased before the Public Service Commission, it is but logical that the legal representative be empowered and entitled in behalf of the estate to make the right effective in that proceeding.

(5) One who has been granted a legislative franchise to operate an ice plant, although not yet an operator of such public utility, has sufficient interest or personality either to oppose an established operator’s application for an increase in the capacity of his existing plant, or to ask for a joint hearing of said application and the grantee’s own application for the issuance of a certificate of public convenience in order to operate under such franchise.

(6) The fact that a party is the lessee of a line does not bar him from applying for a certificate of its own in the same line.  Even in cases where the owner of a certificate has sold it subject to the condition that he would not apply for a similar service on the same line sold by him, it has been held that such an argument does not bar the seller from applying and that the Public Service Commission, if it finds that there is public need for the new service applied for, may properly grant the certificate requested.  In other words the primary consideration is a finding by the Commission that public interest and convenience require a given service and that parties may not by agreement deprive the Commission of its power.

(7) A case involving the grant of a Certificate of Public Convenience to the respondent becomes moot and academic where the respondent ceases to be a bus operator, and it should be dismissed.

SECTION 30.  (a) The Commission may issue subpoenas and subpoenas duces tecum, for witnesses in any matter or inquiry pending before the Commission and require the production of all books, papers, tariffs, contracts, agreements, and all other documents, which the Commission may deem necessary in any proceeding.  such process shall be issued under the seal of the Commission, signed by one of the Commissioners or by the secretary, and may be served by any person of full age, or by registered mail.  In case of disobedience to such subpoena, the Commission may invoke the said of the Supreme Court or of any Court of First Instance of the Philippines in requiring the attendance and testimony of witness and the production of books, papers, and documents under the provisions of this chapter, and the Supreme Court, or any Court of First Instance of the Philippines within the jurisdiction of which such inquiry is carried on, may in case of contumacy of refusal to obey a subpoena, issue to any public service subject to the provisions of this Act, or to any person, an order requiring such public service or other person to appear before the Commission and produce and papers if so ordered and give evidence touching the matter; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(b) Any person who shall neglect or refuse to answer any lawful inquiry or produce the Commission books, paper, tariffs, contracts, agreements, and documents or other things called for by said Commission, if in his power to do so, in obedience to the subpoena or lawful inquiry of the Commission, upon conviction thereof by a court of competent jurisdiction, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand pesos or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(c) The Commissioner and associate commissioners, the chiefs of divisions, the attorneys of the Commission, and the deputy secretaries shall have the power to administer oaths in all matters under the jurisdiction of the Commission.

(d) Any person who shall testify falsely or make any false affidavit or oath before the Commission or before any of its members shall be guilty of perjury, and upon conviction thereof in a court of competent jurisdiction, shall be punished as provided by law.

(e) Witnesses appearing before the Commission in obedience to subpoena or subpoena duces tecum, shall be entitled to receive the same fees and mileage allowance as witnesses attending Courts of First Instance in civil cases.

(f) Any person who shall obstruct the Commission or either of the Commissioners while engaged in the discharge of Official duties, or who shall conduct himself in a rude, disrespectful or disorderly manner before the Commission or either of the Commissioners, while engaged in the discharge of official duties, or shall orally or in writing be disrespectful to, offend or insult either of the Commissioners on occasion or by reason of the performance of official duties, upon conviction thereof by a court of competent jurisdiction, shall be punished for each offense by a fine not exceeding one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both, in the discretion of the court.

SECTION 31.  No person shall be excused from testifying or from producing any book, document, or paper in any investigation or inquiry by or upon the hearing before the Commission, when ordered so to do by said Commission, except when the testimony or evidence required of him may tend to incriminate him.  Without the consent of the interested party no member or employee of the Commission shall be compelled or permitted to give testimony in any civil suit to which the Commission is not a party, with regard to secrets obtained by him in the discharge of his official duty.

SECTION 32.  The Commission may, in any investigation or hearing, by its order in writing cause the deposition of witnesses residing within or without the Philippines to be taken in the manner prescribed by the Rules of Court.  Where witnesses reside in places distant from Manila and it would be inconvenient and expensive for them to appear personally before the Commission, the Commission may, by proper order, commission any clerk of the Court of First Instance, municipal judge or justice of the peace of the Philippines to take the deposition of witnesses in any case pending before the Commission.  It shall be the duty of the official so commissioned, to designated promptly a date or dates for the taking of such deposition, giving timely notice to the parties, and on said date to proceed to take the deposition, reducing it to writing.  After the depositions have been taken, the official so commissioned shall certify to the depositions taken and forward them as soon as possible to the Commission.  It shall be the duty of the respective parties to furnish stenographers for taking and transcribing the testimony taken.  In case the are no stenographers available, the testimony shall be taken in long hand by such person as the clerk of court, the municipal judge or justice of the peace may designate.

The Commission may also commission a notary public to take the depositions in the same manner herein provided.

The Commission may also, by proper order, authorize any of the attorneys of the legal division or division chiefs of the Commission, if they be lawyers, to hear and investigate any case filed, with the Commission and in connection therewith to receive such evidence as may be material thereto.  At the conclusion of the hearing or investigation, the attorney or division chief so authorized shall submit the evidence received by him to the Commission to enable the latter to render its decision.  (As amended by Republic Act No. 723)

SECTION 33.  Every order made by the Commission shall be served upon the person or public service affected thereby, within ten days from the time said order is filed by personal delivery or by ordinary mail, upon the attorney of record, or in case there be no attorney of record, upon the party interested; and in case such certified copy is sent by registered mail, the registry mail receipt shall be prima facie evidence of the receipt of such order by the public service in due course of mail.  All orders of the Commission to continue an existing service or prescribing rates to be charged shall be immediately operative; all other orders shall become effective upon the dates specified thereon:  Provided, however, That orders, resolutions or decisions in converted matters and not referring to the continuance of an existing service or prescribing rates to be charged shall not be effective unless otherwise provided by the Commission, and shall take effect thirty days after notice to the parties.

SECTION 34.  Any interested party may request the reconsideration of any order, ruling, or decision of the Commission by means of a petition filed not later than fifteen days after the date of the notice of the order, ruling, or decision in question.  The grounds on which the request for reconsideration is based shall be clearly and specifically stated in the petition.  Copies of said petition shall be served on all parties interested in the matter.

It shall be the duty of the Commission to call a hearing to decide the same promptly, either denying the petition or revoking or modifying the order, ruling or decision under consideration.

SECTION 35.  The Supreme Court is hereby given jurisdiction to review any order, ruling, or decision of the Commission and to modify or set aside such order, ruling, or decision when it clearly appears that there was no evidence before the Commission to support reasonably such order, ruling, or decision, or that the same is contrary to law, or that it was without the jurisdiction of the Commission.  The evidence presented to the Commission, together with the record of the proceedings before the Commission, shall be certified by the secretary of the Commission to the Supreme Court
.  Any order, ruling, or decision of the Commission may likewise be reviewed by the Supreme Court upon a writ of certiorari in proper cases.  The procedure for review, except as herein provided, shall be prescribed by rules of the Supreme Court.

SECTION 36.  Any other, ruling, or decision of the may be reviewed on the application of any person or public service affected thereby, by certiorari in appropriate cases, or by petition, to be known as petition for review, which shall be filed within thirty days from the notification of such order, ruling or decision, or in case of a petition is filed in accordance with the preceding section for the reconsideration of such order, ruling or decision and the same is denied it shall be filed within fifteen days after notice of the order denying reconsideration.  Said petition shall be placed on file in the office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court who shall furnish copies thereof to the Secretary of the Commission and other parties interested.

SECTION 37.  The institution of a writ of certiorari or other special remedies in the Supreme Court shall in no case supersede or stay any order, ruling or decision of the Commission, unless the Supreme Court shall so direct, and the appellant may be required by the Supreme Court to give bond in such form and of such amount as may be deemed proper.

SECTION 38.  The chief of the legal division or any other attorneys of the Commission shall represent the same in all judicial proceedings.  It shall be the duty of the Solicitor General to represent the Commission in any judicial proceedings if, for special reason, the Commissioner shall request his intervention.

There is hereby created under the administrative supervision of the Secretary of Justice an office to be known as the Office of the People’s Counsel in the Public Service Commission.  The people’s Counsel shall have two assistants and such number of employees as may be necessary to perform the functions hereinafter specified.  The People’s Counsel and his assistants shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines with the consent of the commission on appointments of the Congress of the Philippines.  The employees of the office of the People’s Counsel shall be appointed by the Secretary of Justice upon recommendation of the People’s Counsel.

The People’s Counsel and his assistants shall posses the qualifications of a provincial fiscal.  The People’s Counsel shall receive compensation at the rate of seven thousand two hundred pesos per annum, and the first and second assistant’s People’s Counsel, at the rate of six thousand pesos per annum each.

The People’s Counsel, his assistants, and the employees of the Office of the People’s Counsel shall not, during their continuance in office, intervene directly or indirectly in the management or control of, or be financially interested directly or indirectly in any public service as defined in this Act.

It shall be the duty of the People’s Counsel

(1) to institute proceedings before the Commission, in behalf of the public, for the purpose of fixing just and reasonable rates or charges to be followed and observed by public services as herein defined, whenever he has reason to believe that the existing rates or charges of such public services are unjust and unreasonable or unjustly discriminatory;

(2) to represent and appear for the public before the Commission or any court of the Philippines in every case involving the interest of users of the products of, or service furnished by any public service under the jurisdiction of the Commission;

(3) to represent and appear for petitioners appearing before the Commission for the purpose of complaining in matters of the rates and services;

(4) to investigate the service given by the rates charged by, and the valuation of the properties of the public services under the jurisdiction of the Commission, and such other matters relating to said public services as affect the interests of users of the products or service thereof, and to take all the steps necessary for the protection of the interests of the person or persons or of the public affected thereby.  In connection with such investigation he is hereby empowered to issue subpoena or subpoena duces tecum.

The People’s Counsel is authorized to call upon and obtain such assistance as he may deem necessary in the performance of his duties from any officer or employee of any department, bureau, office, agency, or instrumentality of the government including corporations owned, controlled or operated by the government.  (As amended by Republic Act No. 178)

SECTION 39.  Any proceeding in any court of the Philippines directly affecting an order of the Commission or to which the Commission is a party, shall have preference over all other civil proceedings pending in such court, except election cases.

CHAPTER VI

FEES

SECTION 40.  The Commission is authorized and ordered to charge and collect from any public service or applicant, as the case may be, the following fees as reimbursement of its expenses in the authorization, supervision and/or regulation of public services:

(a) The charge of fifty pesos for the registration of:

(1) Applications under the provisions of Section sixteen (a), (b), (c), and (d), and twenty (a), (b) (c), (e), (f), and (h):  Provided however, That in case of transportation services an additional filing fee of five pesos shall be charged for each additional unit or vehicle in excess of five units or vehicles applied for:  And provided, finally, That no filing fee shall be collected for the reduction of rates if the same does not alter or modify in any way the basic rates of the schedule.

(2) Applications for the approval or modification of maximum rates under Section fourteen.

(b) Thirty pesos shall be collected from any operator of land transportation for the registration of:

(1) Applications under Section seventeen (f).

(2) Applications for the extension of time covering a period of thirty days for the registration of motor vehicles previously authorized by the Commission.

(c) The charge of thirty pesos for the filing of other applications by any public service operator not specifically provided for in the preceding paragraphs of this section other than motions of a temporary or incidental character:  Provided, however, That fifteen pesos only shall be collected for each certificate of public convenience or certificate of public convenience and necessity in diploma form issued to a public service operator.

(d) For annual reimbursement of the expenses incurred by the Commission for the supervision and regulation of the operations of motor vehicle services:

(1) For each automobile, ten pesos.

(2) For each motor vehicle, truck, or trailer of less than two tons gross transportation capacity, ten pesos.

(3) For each motor vehicle, truck, or trailer of two tons or more, but less than three tons gross transportation capacity, twenty pesos.

(4) For each motor vehicle, truck, or trailer of three tons or more but less than four tons gross transportation capacity, thirty pesos.

(5) Motor vehicles, trucks, trailers or buses of four tons or more gross capacity shall pay at the rate of ten pesos per ton gross.  The fees provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) hereof shall be paid on or before September thirtieth of each year with a penalty of fifty per centum in case of delinquency:  Provided, further, That if the fees or any balance thereof are not paid within sixty days from the said date, the penalty shall be increased by one per centum for every month thereafter of delinquency:  Provided, however, That motor vehicles registered in the Motor Vehicles Office after September thirtieth shall be exempt from payment for said year.

(e) For annual reimbursement of the expenses incurred by the Commission in the supervision of other public services and/or in the regulation or fixing of their rates, twenty centavos for each one hundred pesos or fraction thereof, of the capital stock subscribed or paid, or if no shares have been issued, of the capital invested, or of the property and equipment, whichever is higher.

(f) For the issue or increase of capital stock, twenty centavos for each one hundred pesos or fraction thereof, of the increased capital.

(g) For each permit authorizing the increase of equipment, the installation of new units or authorizing the increase of capacity.  or the extension of means or general extension in the services, twenty centavos for each one hundred pesos or fraction of the additional capital necessary to carry out the permit.

(h) For the inspection or certification made in the meter laboratory of the Commission or each apparatus or meter used by any public service, four pesos, and for examination made outside the meter laboratory of the Commission, the additional expenses as may be incurred in making the examination shall also be paid.

(i) For certification of copies of official documents in the files of the Commission, fifty centavos plus fifty centavos for each page or folio so certified.

This section shall not be applicable to the Republic of the Philippines, nor to its instrumentalities.

Aside from the appropriations for the Commission under the annual General Appropriation Act, any unexpended balance of the fees collected by the Commission under this section shall be constituted receipts automatically appropriated each year, and together with any surplus in the standardizing meter laboratory revolving fund under Commonwealth Act Numbered Three hundred forty-nine, shall be disbursed by the Public Service Commissioner in accordance with special budgets to be approved by the Department of Justice, the Budget Commission and the Office of the President of the Philippines for additional needed personal services, maintenance and operating expenses, acquisition of urgently needed vehicles, furniture and equipment, maintenance of an adequate reference library, acquisition of a lot and building for the Commission, and other expenses necessary for efficient administration and effective supervision and regulation of public services.  (As amended by Commonwealth Act No. 454 and R.A. No. 3792)

CHAPTER VII

GENERAL AND TRANSITORY PROVISIONS

SECTION 41.  A substantial compliance with the requirements of this Act shall be sufficient to give effect to all the rules, orders, acts and regulations of the Commission and they shall not be declared inoperative, illegal, or void for any omission of a technical nature in respect thereto.

SECTION 42.  Copies of all official documents and orders filled or deposited in the office of the Commission, certified by either of the commissioners, or by the secretary to be true copy of the original, under the seal of the Commission shall be evidence in like manner as the originals in all courts of the Philippines.

SECTION 43.  The Commission created under this Act shall succeed the Commission created under Act numbered thirty-one hundred and eight in the dispatch, hearing, and determination of all pending matters before the latter; and shall take charge of its archives, books, furniture, equipment, and other properties of whatsoever nature.

SECTION 44.  In addition to the sum appropriated for the former commission under Act numbered forty-one hundred and thirty-two, the General Appropriation Act for nineteen hundred and thirty-six, the sum of six thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight pesos and thirty-four centavos is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the Philippines Treasury not otherwise; and in addition to the sum appropriated under Act numbered thirty-eight, the General Appropriation Act for nineteen hundred and thirty-seven, the sum of twenty three thousand six hundred and ten pesos, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any funds in the Philippines Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for carrying out the purposes of this Act.

SECTION 45.  If, any reason, any section, subsection, sentence, clauses or terms of this Act is held to the unconstitutional such decision shall not affect the validity of the other provisions of this Act.

SECTION 46.  Act numbered thirty-two hundred and forty-seven and Act numbered thirty-five hundred and eighteen shall continue in force and effect; but all provisions of Act numbered thirty-one hundred and eight and amendments thereof, and all other acts or parts or acts inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed.

SECTION 47.  This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

Approved, November 7, 1936

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TITLE I - GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS

Section 1. Title of the Code. - This Code shall be known as "The Corporation Code of the Philippines." (n)

Section 2. Corporation defined. - A corporation is an artificial being created by operation of law, having the right of succession and the powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence. (2)

Section 3. Classes of corporations. - Corporations formed or organized under this Code may be stock or non-stock corporations. Corporations which have capital stock divided into shares and are authorized to distribute to the holders of such shares dividends or allotments of the surplus profits on the basis of the shares held are stock corporations. All other corporations are non-stock corporations. (3a)

Section 4. Corporations created by special laws or charters. - Corporations created by special laws or charters shall be governed primarily by the provisions of the special law or charter creating them or applicable to them, supplemented by the provisions of this Code, insofar as they are applicable. (n)

Section 5. Corporators and incorporators, stockholders and members. - Corporators are those who compose a corporation, whether as stockholders or as members. Incorporators are those stockholders or members mentioned in the articles of incorporation as originally forming and composing the corporation and who are signatories thereof.

Corporators in a stock corporation are called stockholders or shareholders. Corporators in a non-stock corporation are called members. (4a)

Section 6. Classification of shares. - The shares of stock of stock corporations may be divided into classes or series of shares, or both, any of which classes or series of shares may have such rights, privileges or restrictions as may be stated in the articles of incorporation: Provided, That no share may be deprived of voting rights except those classified and issued as "preferred" or "redeemable" shares, unless otherwise provided in this Code: Provided, further, That there shall always be a class or series of shares which have complete voting rights. Any or all of the shares or series of shares may have a par value or have no par value as may be provided for in the articles of incorporation: Provided, however, That banks, trust companies, insurance companies, public utilities, and building and loan associations shall not be permitted to issue no-par value shares of stock.

Preferred shares of stock issued by any corporation may be given preference in the distribution of the assets of the corporation in case of liquidation and in the distribution of dividends, or such other preferences as may be stated in the articles of incorporation which are not violative of the provisions of this Code: Provided, That preferred shares of stock may be issued only with a stated par value. The board of directors, where authorized in the articles of incorporation, may fix the terms and conditions of preferred shares of stock or any series thereof: Provided, That such terms and conditions shall be effective upon the filing of a certificate thereof with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Shares of capital stock issued without par value shall be deemed fully paid and non-assessable and the holder of such shares shall not be liable to the corporation or to its creditors in respect thereto: Provided; That shares without par value may not be issued for a consideration less than the value of five (P5.00) pesos per share: Provided, further, That the entire consideration received by the corporation for its no-par value shares shall be treated as capital and shall not be available for distribution as dividends.

A corporation may, furthermore, classify its shares for the purpose of insuring compliance with constitutional or legal requirements.

Except as otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation and stated in the certificate of stock, each share shall be equal in all respects to every other share.

Where the articles of incorporation provide for non-voting shares in the cases allowed by this Code, the holders of such shares shall nevertheless be entitled to vote on the following matters:

1. Amendment of the articles of incorporation;

2. Adoption and amendment of by-laws;

3. Sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge or other disposition of all or substantially all of the corporate property;

4. Incurring, creating or increasing bonded indebtedness;

5. Increase or decrease of capital stock;

6. Merger or consolidation of the corporation with another corporation or other corporations;

7. Investment of corporate funds in another corporation or business in accordance with this Code; and

8. Dissolution of the corporation.

Except as provided in the immediately preceding paragraph, the vote necessary to approve a particular corporate act as provided in this Code shall be deemed to refer only to stocks with voting rights. (5a)

Section 7. Founders' shares. - Founders' shares classified as such in the articles of incorporation may be given certain rights and privileges not enjoyed by the owners of other stocks, provided that where the exclusive right to vote and be voted for in the election of directors is granted, it must be for a limited period not to exceed five (5) years subject to the approval of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The five-year period shall commence from the date of the aforesaid approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission. (n)

Section 8. Redeemable shares. - Redeemable shares may be issued by the corporation when expressly so provided in the articles of incorporation. They may be purchased or taken up by the corporation upon the expiration of a fixed period, regardless of the existence of unrestricted retained earnings in the books of the corporation, and upon such other terms and conditions as may be stated in the articles of incorporation, which terms and conditions must also be stated in the certificate of stock representing said shares. (n)

Section 9. Treasury shares. - Treasury shares are shares of stock which have been issued and fully paid for, but subsequently reacquired by the issuing corporation by purchase, redemption, donation or through some other lawful means. Such shares may again be disposed of for a reasonable price fixed by the board of directors. (n)

TITLE II - INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION OF PRIVATE CORPORATIONS

Section 10. Number and qualifications of incorporators. - Any number of natural persons not less than five (5) but not more than fifteen (15), all of legal age and a majority of whom are residents of the Philippines, may form a private corporation for any lawful purpose or purposes. Each of the incorporators of s stock corporation must own or be a subscriber to at least one (1) share of the capital stock of the corporation. (6a)

Section 11. Corporate term. - A corporation shall exist for a period not exceeding fifty (50) years from the date of incorporation unless sooner dissolved or unless said period is extended. The corporate term as originally stated in the articles of incorporation may be extended for periods not exceeding fifty (50) years in any single instance by an amendment of the articles of incorporation, in accordance with this Code; Provided, That no extension can be made earlier than five (5) years prior to the original or subsequent expiry date(s) unless there are justifiable reasons for an earlier extension as may be determined by the Securities and Exchange Commission. (6)

Section 12. Minimum capital stock required of stock corporations. - Stock corporations incorporated under this Code shall not be required to have any minimum authorized capital stock except as otherwise specifically provided for by special law, and subject to the provisions of the following section.

Section 13. Amount of capital stock to be subscribed and paid for the purposes of incorporation. - At least twenty-five percent (25%) of the authorized capital stock as stated in the articles of incorporation must be subscribed at the time of incorporation, and at least twenty-five (25%) per cent of the total subscription must be paid upon subscription, the balance to be payable on a date or dates fixed in the contract of subscription without need of call, or in the absence of a fixed date or dates, upon call for payment by the board of directors: Provided, however, That in no case shall the paid-up capital be less than five Thousand (P5,000.00) pesos. (n)

Section 14. Contents of the articles of incorporation. - All corporations organized under this code shall file with the Securities and Exchange Commission articles of incorporation in any of the official languages duly signed and acknowledged by all of the incorporators, containing substantially the following matters, except as otherwise prescribed by this Code or by special law:

1. The name of the corporation;

2. The specific purpose or purposes for which the corporation is being incorporated. Where a corporation has more than one stated purpose, the articles of incorporation shall state which is the primary purpose and which is/are the secondary purpose or purposes: Provided, That a non-stock corporation may not include a purpose which would change or contradict its nature as such;

3. The place where the principal office of the corporation is to be located, which must be within the Philippines;

4. The term for which the corporation is to exist;

5. The names, nationalities and residences of the incorporators;

6. The number of directors or trustees, which shall not be less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15);

7. The names, nationalities and residences of persons who shall act as directors or trustees until the first regular directors or trustees are duly elected and qualified in accordance with this Code;

8. If it be a stock corporation, the amount of its authorized capital stock in lawful money of the Philippines, the number of shares into which it is divided, and in case the share are par value shares, the par value of each, the names, nationalities and residences of the original subscribers, and the amount subscribed and paid by each on his subscription, and if some or all of the shares are without par value, such fact must be stated;

9. If it be a non-stock corporation, the amount of its capital, the names, nationalities and residences of the contributors and the amount contributed by each; and

10. Such other matters as are not inconsistent with law and which the incorporators may deem necessary and convenient.

The Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept the articles of incorporation of any stock corporation unless accompanied by a sworn statement of the Treasurer elected by the subscribers showing that at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the authorized capital stock of the corporation has been subscribed, and at least twenty-five (25%) of the total subscription has been fully paid to him in actual cash and/or in property the fair valuation of which is equal to at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the said subscription, such paid-up capital being not less than five thousand (P5,000.00) pesos.

Section 15. Forms of Articles of Incorporation. - Unless otherwise prescribed by special law, articles of incorporation of all domestic corporations shall comply substantially with the following form:

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION OF

__________________________

(Name of Corporation)

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS:

The undersigned incorporators, all of legal age and a majority of whom are residents of the Philippines, have this day voluntarily agreed to form a (stock) (non-stock) corporation under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines;

AND WE HEREBY CERTIFY:

FIRST: That the name of said corporation shall be "_____________________, INC. or CORPORATION";

SECOND: That the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is incorporated are: (If there is more than one purpose, indicate primary and secondary purposes);

THIRD: That the principal office of the corporation is located in the City/Municipality of ________________________, Province of _______________________, Philippines;

FOURTH: That the term for which said corporation is to exist is _____________ years from and after the date of issuance of the certificate of incorporation;

FIFTH: That the names, nationalities and residences of the incorporators of the corporation are as follows:

NAME NATIONALITY RESIDENCE

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

SIXTH: That the number of directors or trustees of the corporation shall be _______; and the names, nationalities and residences of the first directors or trustees of the corporation are as follows:

NAME NATIONALITY RESIDENCE

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________

SEVENTH: That the authorized capital stock of the corporation is ______________________ (P___________) PESOS in lawful money of the Philippines, divided into __________ shares with the par value of ____________________ (P_____________) Pesos per share.

(In case all the share are without par value):

That the capital stock of the corporation is ______________ shares without par value. (In case some shares have par value and some are without par value): That the capital stock of said corporation consists of _____________ shares of which ______________ shares are of the par value of _________________ (P____________) PESOS each, and of which _________________ shares are without par value.

EIGHTH: That at least twenty five (25%) per cent of the authorized capital stock above stated has been subscribed as follows:

Name of Subscriber Nationality No of Shares Amount

Subscribed Subscribed

_________________ __________ ____________ ____________

_________________ __________ ____________ ____________

_________________ __________ ____________ ____________

_________________ __________ ____________ ____________

_________________ __________ ____________ ____________

NINTH: That the above-named subscribers have paid at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the total subscription as follows:

Name of Subscriber Amount Subscribed Total Paid-In

_________________ ___________________ _______________

_________________ ___________________ _______________

_________________ ___________________ _______________

_________________ ___________________ _______________

_________________ ___________________ _______________

(Modify Nos. 8 and 9 if shares are with no par value. In case the corporation is non-stock, Nos. 7, 8 and 9 of the above articles may be modified accordingly, and it is sufficient if the articles state the amount of capital or money contributed or donated by specified persons, stating the names, nationalities and residences of the contributors or donors and the respective amount given by each.)

TENTH: That _____________________ has been elected by the subscribers as Treasurer of the Corporation to act as such until his successor is duly elected and qualified in accordance with the by-laws, and that as such Treasurer, he has been authorized to receive for and in the name and for the benefit of the corporation, all subscription (or fees) or contributions or donations paid or given by the subscribers or members.

ELEVENTH: (Corporations which will engage in any business or activity reserved for Filipino citizens shall provide the following):

"No transfer of stock or interest which shall reduce the ownership of Filipino citizens to less than the required percentage of the capital stock as provided by existing laws shall be allowed or permitted to be recorded in the proper books of the corporation and this restriction shall be indicated in all stock certificates issued by the corporation."

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto signed these Articles of Incorporation, this __________ day of ________________, 19 ______ in the City/Municipality of ____________________, Province of ________________________, Republic of the Philippines.

_______________________ _______________________

_______________________ _______________________

________________________________

(Names and signatures of the incorporators)

SIGNED IN THE PRESENCE OF:

_______________________ _______________________

(Notarial Acknowledgment)

TREASURER'S AFFIDAVIT

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES )

CITY/MUNICIPALITY OF ) S.S.

PROVINCE OF )

I, ____________________, being duly sworn, depose and say:

That I have been elected by the subscribers of the corporation as Treasurer thereof, to act as such until my successor has been duly elected and qualified in accordance with the by-laws of the corporation, and that as such Treasurer, I hereby certify under oath that at least 25% of the authorized capital stock of the corporation has been subscribed and at least 25% of the total subscription has been paid, and received by me, in cash or property, in the amount of not less than P5,000.00, in accordance with the Corporation Code.

____________________

(Signature of Treasurer)

SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN to before me, a Notary Public, for and in the City/Municipality of ___________________ Province of _____________________, this _______ day of ___________, 19 _____; by __________________ with Res. Cert. No. ___________ issued at _______________________ on ____________, 19 ______

NOTARY PUBLIC

My commission expires on

_________, 19 _____

Doc. No. _________;

Page No. _________;

Book No. ________;

Series of 19____ (7a)

Section 16. Amendment of Articles of Incorporation. - Unless otherwise prescribed by this Code or by special law, and for legitimate purposes, any provision or matter stated in the articles of incorporation may be amended by a majority vote of the board of directors or trustees and the vote or written assent of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, without prejudice to the appraisal right of dissenting stockholders in accordance with the provisions of this Code, or the vote or written assent of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members if it be a non-stock corporation.

The original and amended articles together shall contain all provisions required by law to be set out in the articles of incorporation. Such articles, as amended shall be indicated by underscoring the change or changes made, and a copy thereof duly certified under oath by the corporate secretary and a majority of the directors or trustees stating the fact that said amendment or amendments have been duly approved by the required vote of the stockholders or members, shall be submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The amendments shall take effect upon their approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission or from the date of filing with the said Commission if not acted upon within six (6) months from the date of filing for a cause not attributable to the corporation.

Section 17. Grounds when articles of incorporation or amendment may be rejected or disapproved. - The Securities and Exchange Commission may reject the articles of incorporation or disapprove any amendment thereto if the same is not in compliance with the requirements of this Code: Provided, That the Commission shall give the incorporators a reasonable time within which to correct or modify the objectionable portions of the articles or amendment. The following are grounds for such rejection or disapproval:

1. That the articles of incorporation or any amendment thereto is not substantially in accordance with the form prescribed herein;

2. That the purpose or purposes of the corporation are patently unconstitutional, illegal, immoral, or contrary to government rules and regulations;

3. That the Treasurer's Affidavit concerning the amount of capital stock subscribed and/or paid is false;

4. That the percentage of ownership of the capital stock to be owned by citizens of the Philippines has not been complied with as required by existing laws or the Constitution.

No articles of incorporation or amendment to articles of incorporation of banks, banking and quasi-banking institutions, building and loan associations, trust companies and other financial intermediaries, insurance companies, public utilities, educational institutions, and other corporations governed by special laws shall be accepted or approved by the Commission unless accompanied by a favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency to the effect that such articles or amendment is in accordance with law. (n)

Section 18. Corporate name. - No corporate name may be allowed by the Securities and Exchange Commission if the proposed name is identical or deceptively or confusingly similar to that of any existing corporation or to any other name already protected by law or is patently deceptive, confusing or contrary to existing laws. When a change in the corporate name is approved, the Commission shall issue an amended certificate of incorporation under the amended name. (n)

Section 19. Commencement of corporate existence. - A private corporation formed or organized under this Code commences to have corporate existence and juridical personality and is deemed incorporated from the date the Securities and Exchange Commission issues a certificate of incorporation under its official seal; and thereupon the incorporators, stockholders/members and their successors shall constitute a body politic and corporate under the name stated in the articles of incorporation for the period of time mentioned therein, unless said period is extended or the corporation is sooner dissolved in accordance with law. (n)

Section 20. De facto corporations. - The due incorporation of any corporation claiming in good faith to be a corporation under this Code, and its right to exercise corporate powers, shall not be inquired into collaterally in any private suit to which such corporation may be a party. Such inquiry may be made by the Solicitor General in a quo warranto proceeding. (n)

Section 21. Corporation by estoppel. - All persons who assume to act as a corporation knowing it to be without authority to do so shall be liable as general partners for all debts, liabilities and damages incurred or arising as a result thereof: Provided, however, That when any such ostensible corporation is sued on any transaction entered by it as a corporation or on any tort committed by it as such, it shall not be allowed to use as a defense its lack of corporate personality.

On who assumes an obligation to an ostensible corporation as such, cannot resist performance thereof on the ground that there was in fact no corporation. (n)

Section 22. Effects on non-use of corporate charter and continuous inoperation of a corporation. - If a corporation does not formally organize and commence the transaction of its business or the construction of its works within two (2) years from the date of its incorporation, its corporate powers cease and the corporation shall be deemed dissolved. However, if a corporation has commenced the transaction of its business but subsequently becomes continuously inoperative for a period of at least five (5) years, the same shall be a ground for the suspension or revocation of its corporate franchise or certificate of incorporation. (19a)

This provision shall not apply if the failure to organize, commence the transaction of its businesses or the construction of its works, or to continuously operate is due to causes beyond the control of the corporation as may be determined by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

TITLE III - BOARD OF DIRECTORS/TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

Section 23. The board of directors or trustees. - Unless otherwise provided in this Code, the corporate powers of all corporations formed under this Code shall be exercised, all business conducted and all property of such corporations controlled and held by the board of directors or trustees to be elected from among the holders of stocks, or where there is no stock, from among the members of the corporation, who shall hold office for one (1) year until their successors are elected and qualified. (28a)

Every director must own at least one (1) share of the capital stock of the corporation of which he is a director, which share shall stand in his name on the books of the corporation. Any director who ceases to be the owner of at least one (1) share of the capital stock of the corporation of which he is a director shall thereby cease to be a director. Trustees of non-stock corporations must be members thereof. A majority of the directors or trustees of all corporations organized under this Code must be residents of the Philippines.

Section 24. Election of directors or trustees. - At all elections of directors or trustees, there must be present, either in person or by representative authorized to act by written proxy, the owners of a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital stock, a majority of the members entitled to vote. The election must be by ballot if requested by any voting stockholder or member. In stock corporations, every stockholder entitled to vote shall have the right to vote in person or by proxy the number of shares of stock standing, at the time fixed in the by-laws, in his own name on the stock books of the corporation, or where the by-laws are silent, at the time of the election; and said stockholder may vote such number of shares for as many persons as there are directors to be elected or he may cumulate said shares and give one candidate as many votes as the number of directors to be elected multiplied by the number of his shares shall equal, or he may distribute them on the same principle among as many candidates as he shall see fit: Provided, That the total number of votes cast by him shall not exceed the number of shares owned by him as shown in the books of the corporation multiplied by the whole number of directors to be elected: Provided, however, That no delinquent stock shall be voted. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or in the by-laws, members of corporations which have no capital stock may cast as many votes as there are trustees to be elected but may not cast more than one vote for one candidate. Candidates receiving the highest number of votes shall be declared elected. Any meeting of the stockholders or members called for an election may adjourn from day to day or from time to time but not sine die or indefinitely if, for any reason, no election is held, or if there are not present or represented by proxy, at the meeting, the owners of a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital stock, a majority of the member entitled to vote. (31a)

Section 25. Corporate officers, quorum. - Immediately after their election, the directors of a corporation must formally organize by the election of a president, who shall be a director, a treasurer who may or may not be a director, a secretary who shall be a resident and citizen of the Philippines, and such other officers as may be provided for in the by-laws. Any two (2) or more positions may be held concurrently by the same person, except that no one shall act as president and secretary or as president and treasurer at the same time.

The directors or trustees and officers to be elected shall perform the duties enjoined on them by law and the by-laws of the corporation. Unless the articles of incorporation or the by-laws provide for a greater majority, a majority of the number of directors or trustees as fixed in the articles of incorporation shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of corporate business, and every decision of at least a majority of the directors or trustees present at a meeting at which there is a quorum shall be valid as a corporate act, except for the election of officers which shall require the vote of a majority of all the members of the board.

Directors or trustees cannot attend or vote by proxy at board meetings. (33a)

Section 26. Report of election of directors, trustees and officers. - Within thirty (30) days after the election of the directors, trustees and officers of the corporation, the secretary, or any other officer of the corporation, shall submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission, the names, nationalities and residences of the directors, trustees, and officers elected. Should a director, trustee or officer die, resign or in any manner cease to hold office, his heirs in case of his death, the secretary, or any other officer of the corporation, or the director, trustee or officer himself, shall immediately report such fact to the Securities and Exchange Commission. (n)

Section 27. Disqualification of directors, trustees or officers. - No person convicted by final judgment of an offense punishable by imprisonment for a period exceeding six (6) years, or a violation of this Code committed within five (5) years prior to the date of his election or appointment, shall qualify as a director, trustee or officer of any corporation. (n)

Section 28. Removal of directors or trustees. - Any director or trustee of a corporation may be removed from office by a vote of the stockholders holding or representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or if the corporation be a non-stock corporation, by a vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members entitled to vote: Provided, That such removal shall take place either at a regular meeting of the corporation or at a special meeting called for the purpose, and in either case, after previous notice to stockholders or members of the corporation of the intention to propose such removal at the meeting. A special meeting of the stockholders or members of a corporation for the purpose of removal of directors or trustees, or any of them, must be called by the secretary on order of the president or on the written demand of the stockholders representing or holding at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or, if it be a non-stock corporation, on the written demand of a majority of the members entitled to vote. Should the secretary fail or refuse to call the special meeting upon such demand or fail or refuse to give the notice, or if there is no secretary, the call for the meeting may be addressed directly to the stockholders or members by any stockholder or member of the corporation signing the demand. Notice of the time and place of such meeting, as well as of the intention to propose such removal, must be given by publication or by written notice prescribed in this Code. Removal may be with or without cause: Provided, That removal without cause may not be used to deprive minority stockholders or members of the right of representation to which they may be entitled under Section 24 of this Code. (n)

Section 29. Vacancies in the office of director or trustee. - Any vacancy occurring in the board of directors or trustees other than by removal by the stockholders or members or by expiration of term, may be filled by the vote of at least a majority of the remaining directors or trustees, if still constituting a quorum; otherwise, said vacancies must be filled by the stockholders in a regular or special meeting called for that purpose. A director or trustee so elected to fill a vacancy shall be elected only or the unexpired term of his predecessor in office.

Any directorship or trusteeship to be filled by reason of an increase in the number of directors or trustees shall be filled only by an election at a regular or at a special meeting of stockholders or members duly called for the purpose, or in the same meeting authorizing the increase of directors or trustees if so stated in the notice of the meeting. (n)

Section 30. Compensation of directors. - In the absence of any provision in the by-laws fixing their compensation, the directors shall not receive any compensation, as such directors, except for reasonable per diems: Provided, however, That any such compensation other than per diems may be granted to directors by the vote of the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock at a regular or special stockholders' meeting. In no case shall the total yearly compensation of directors, as such directors, exceed ten (10%) percent of the net income before income tax of the corporation during the preceding year. (n)

Section 31. Liability of directors, trustees or officers. - Directors or trustees who wilfully and knowingly vote for or assent to patently unlawful acts of the corporation or who are guilty of gross negligence or bad faith in directing the affairs of the corporation or acquire any personal or pecuniary interest in conflict with their duty as such directors or trustees shall be liable jointly and severally for all damages resulting therefrom suffered by the corporation, its stockholders or members and other persons.

When a director, trustee or officer attempts to acquire or acquires, in violation of his duty, any interest adverse to the corporation in respect of any matter which has been reposed in him in confidence, as to which equity imposes a disability upon him to deal in his own behalf, he shall be liable as a trustee for the corporation and must account for the profits which otherwise would have accrued to the corporation. (n)

Section 32. Dealings of directors, trustees or officers with the corporation. - A contract of the corporation with one or more of its directors or trustees or officers is voidable, at the option of such corporation, unless all the following conditions are present:

1. That the presence of such director or trustee in the board meeting in which the contract was approved was not necessary to constitute a quorum for such meeting;

2. That the vote of such director or trustee was not necessary for the approval of the contract;

3. That the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances; and

4. That in case of an officer, the contract has been previously authorized by the board of directors.

Where any of the first two conditions set forth in the preceding paragraph is absent, in the case of a contract with a director or trustee, such contract may be ratified by the vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a meeting called for the purpose: Provided, That full disclosure of the adverse interest of the directors or trustees involved is made at such meeting: Provided, however, That the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances. (n)

Section 33. Contracts between corporations with interlocking directors. - Except in cases of fraud, and provided the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances, a contract between two or more corporations having interlocking directors shall not be invalidated on that ground alone: Provided, That if the interest of the interlocking director in one corporation is substantial and his interest in the other corporation or corporations is merely nominal, he shall be subject to the provisions of the preceding section insofar as the latter corporation or corporations are concerned.

Stockholdings exceeding twenty (20%) percent of the outstanding capital stock shall be considered substantial for purposes of interlocking directors. (n)

Section 34. Disloyalty of a director. - Where a director, by virtue of his office, acquires for himself a business opportunity which should belong to the corporation, thereby obtaining profits to the prejudice of such corporation, he must account to the latter for all such profits by refunding the same, unless his act has been ratified by a vote of the stockholders owning or representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock. This provision shall be applicable, notwithstanding the fact that the director risked his own funds in the venture. (n)

Section 35. Executive committee. - The by-laws of a corporation may create an executive committee, composed of not less than three members of the board, to be appointed by the board. Said committee may act, by majority vote of all its members, on such specific matters within the competence of the board, as may be delegated to it in the by-laws or on a majority vote of the board, except with respect to: (1) approval of any action for which shareholders' approval is also required; (2) the filing of vacancies in the board; (3) the amendment or repeal of by-laws or the adoption of new by-laws; (4) the amendment or repeal of any resolution of the board which by its express terms is not so amendable or repealable; and (5) a distribution of cash dividends to the shareholders.

TITLE IV - POWERS OF CORPORATIONS

Section 36. Corporate powers and capacity. - Every corporation incorporated under this Code has the power and capacity:

1. To sue and be sued in its corporate name;

2. Of succession by its corporate name for the period of time stated in the articles of incorporation and the certificate of incorporation;

3. To adopt and use a corporate seal;

4. To amend its articles of incorporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

5. To adopt by-laws, not contrary to law, morals, or public policy, and to amend or repeal the same in accordance with this Code;

6. In case of stock corporations, to issue or sell stocks to subscribers and to sell stocks to subscribers and to sell treasury stocks in accordance with the provisions of this Code; and to admit members to the corporation if it be a non-stock corporation;

7. To purchase, receive, take or grant, hold, convey, sell, lease, pledge, mortgage and otherwise deal with such real and personal property, including securities and bonds of other corporations, as the transaction of the lawful business of the corporation may reasonably and necessarily require, subject to the limitations prescribed by law and the Constitution;

8. To enter into merger or consolidation with other corporations as provided in this Code;

9. To make reasonable donations, including those for the public welfare or for hospital, charitable, cultural, scientific, civic, or similar purposes: Provided, That no corporation, domestic or foreign, shall give donations in aid of any political party or candidate or for purposes of partisan political activity;

10. To establish pension, retirement, and other plans for the benefit of its directors, trustees, officers and employees; and

11. To exercise such other powers as may be essential or necessary to carry out its purpose or purposes as stated in the articles of incorporation. (13a)

Section 37. Power to extend or shorten corporate term. - A private corporation may extend or shorten its term as stated in the articles of incorporation when approved by a majority vote of the board of directors or trustees and ratified at a meeting by the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or by at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in case of non-stock corporations. Written notice of the proposed action and of the time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to each stockholder or member at his place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, or served personally: Provided, That in case of extension of corporate term, any dissenting stockholder may exercise his appraisal right under the conditions provided in this code. (n)

Section 38. Power to increase or decrease capital stock; incur, create or increase bonded indebtedness. - No corporation shall increase or decrease its capital stock or incur, create or increase any bonded indebtedness unless approved by a majority vote of the board of directors and, at a stockholder's meeting duly called for the purpose, two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock shall favor the increase or diminution of the capital stock, or the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness. Written notice of the proposed increase or diminution of the capital stock or of the incurring, creating, or increasing of any bonded indebtedness and of the time and place of the stockholder's meeting at which the proposed increase or diminution of the capital stock or the incurring or increasing of any bonded indebtedness is to be considered, must be addressed to each stockholder at his place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, or served personally.

A certificate in duplicate must be signed by a majority of the directors of the corporation and countersigned by the chairman and the secretary of the stockholders' meeting, setting forth:

(1) That the requirements of this section have been complied with;

(2) The amount of the increase or diminution of the capital stock;

(3) If an increase of the capital stock, the amount of capital stock or number of shares of no-par stock thereof actually subscribed, the names, nationalities and residences of the persons subscribing, the amount of capital stock or number of no-par stock subscribed by each, and the amount paid by each on his subscription in cash or property, or the amount of capital stock or number of shares of no-par stock allotted to each stock-holder if such increase is for the purpose of making effective stock dividend therefor authorized;

(4) Any bonded indebtedness to be incurred, created or increased;

(5) The actual indebtedness of the corporation on the day of the meeting;

(6) The amount of stock represented at the meeting; and

(7) The vote authorizing the increase or diminution of the capital stock, or the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness.

Any increase or decrease in the capital stock or the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness shall require prior approval of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

One of the duplicate certificates shall be kept on file in the office of the corporation and the other shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and attached to the original articles of incorporation. From and after approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the issuance by the Commission of its certificate of filing, the capital stock shall stand increased or decreased and the incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded indebtedness authorized, as the certificate of filing may declare: Provided, That the Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept for filing any certificate of increase of capital stock unless accompanied by the sworn statement of the treasurer of the corporation lawfully holding office at the time of the filing of the certificate, showing that at least twenty-five (25%) percent of such increased capital stock has been subscribed and that at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the amount subscribed has been paid either in actual cash to the corporation or that there has been transferred to the corporation property the valuation of which is equal to twenty-five (25%) percent of the subscription: Provided, further, That no decrease of the capital stock shall be approved by the Commission if its effect shall prejudice the rights of corporate creditors.

Non-stock corporations may incur or create bonded indebtedness, or increase the same, with the approval by a majority vote of the board of trustees and of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a meeting duly called for the purpose.

Bonds issued by a corporation shall be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which shall have the authority to determine the sufficiency of the terms thereof. (17a)

Section 39. Power to deny pre-emptive right. - All stockholders of a stock corporation shall enjoy pre-emptive right to subscribe to all issues or disposition of shares of any class, in proportion to their respective shareholdings, unless such right is denied by the articles of incorporation or an amendment thereto: Provided, That such pre-emptive right shall not extend to shares to be issued in compliance with laws requiring stock offerings or minimum stock ownership by the public; or to shares to be issued in good faith with the approval of the stockholders representing two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, in exchange for property needed for corporate purposes or in payment of a previously contracted debt.

Section 40. Sale or other disposition of assets. - Subject to the provisions of existing laws on illegal combinations and monopolies, a corporation may, by a majority vote of its board of directors or trustees, sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its property and assets, including its goodwill, upon such terms and conditions and for such consideration, which may be money, stocks, bonds or other instruments for the payment of money or other property or consideration, as its board of directors or trustees may deem expedient, when authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or in case of non-stock corporation, by the vote of at least to two-thirds (2/3) of the members, in a stockholder's or member's meeting duly called for the purpose. Written notice of the proposed action and of the time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to each stockholder or member at his place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, or served personally: Provided, That any dissenting stockholder may exercise his appraisal right under the conditions provided in this Code.

A sale or other disposition shall be deemed to cover substantially all the corporate property and assets if thereby the corporation would be rendered incapable of continuing the business or accomplishing the purpose for which it was incorporated.

After such authorization or approval by the stockholders or members, the board of directors or trustees may, nevertheless, in its discretion, abandon such sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge or other disposition of property and assets, subject to the rights of third parties under any contract relating thereto, without further action or approval by the stockholders or members.

Nothing in this section is intended to restrict the power of any corporation, without the authorization by the stockholders or members, to sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge or otherwise dispose of any of its property and assets if the same is necessary in the usual and regular course of business of said corporation or if the proceeds of the sale or other disposition of such property and assets be appropriated for the conduct of its remaining business.

In non-stock corporations where there are no members with voting rights, the vote of at least a majority of the trustees in office will be sufficient authorization for the corporation to enter into any transaction authorized by this section.

Section 41. Power to acquire own shares. - A stock corporation shall have the power to purchase or acquire its own shares for a legitimate corporate purpose or purposes, including but not limited to the following cases: Provided, That the corporation has unrestricted retained earnings in its books to cover the shares to be purchased or acquired:

1. To eliminate fractional shares arising out of stock dividends;

2. To collect or compromise an indebtedness to the corporation, arising out of unpaid subscription, in a delinquency sale, and to purchase delinquent shares sold during said sale; and

3. To pay dissenting or withdrawing stockholders entitled to payment for their shares under the provisions of this Code. (a)

Section 42. Power to invest corporate funds in another corporation or business or for any other purpose. - Subject to the provisions of this Code, a private corporation may invest its funds in any other corporation or business or for any purpose other than the primary purpose for which it was organized when approved by a majority of the board of directors or trustees and ratified by the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or by at least two thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of non-stock corporations, at a stockholder's or member's meeting duly called for the purpose. Written notice of the proposed investment and the time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to each stockholder or member at his place of residence as shown on the books of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, or served personally: Provided, That any dissenting stockholder shall have appraisal right as provided in this Code: Provided, however, That where the investment by the corporation is reasonably necessary to accomplish its primary purpose as stated in the articles of incorporation, the approval of the stockholders or members shall not be necessary. (17 1/2a)

Section 43. Power to declare dividends. - The board of directors of a stock corporation may declare dividends out of the unrestricted retained earnings which shall be payable in cash, in property, or in stock to all stockholders on the basis of outstanding stock held by them: Provided, That any cash dividends due on delinquent stock shall first be applied to the unpaid balance on the subscription plus costs and expenses, while stock dividends shall be withheld from the delinquent stockholder until his unpaid subscription is fully paid: Provided, further, That no stock dividend shall be issued without the approval of stockholders representing not less than two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock at a regular or special meeting duly called for the purpose. (16a)

Stock corporations are prohibited from retaining surplus profits in excess of one hundred (100%) percent of their paid-in capital stock, except: (1) when justified by definite corporate expansion projects or programs approved by the board of directors; or (2) when the corporation is prohibited under any loan agreement with any financial institution or creditor, whether local or foreign, from declaring dividends without its/his consent, and such consent has not yet been secured; or (3) when it can be clearly shown that such retention is necessary under special circumstances obtaining in the corporation, such as when there is need for special reserve for probable contingencies. (n)

Section 44. Power to enter into management contract. - No corporation shall conclude a management contract with another corporation unless such contract shall have been approved by the board of directors and by stockholders owning at least the majority of the outstanding capital stock, or by at least a majority of the members in the case of a non-stock corporation, of both the managing and the managed corporation, at a meeting duly called for the purpose: Provided, That (1) where a stockholder or stockholders representing the same interest of both the managing and the managed corporations own or control more than one-third (1/3) of the total outstanding capital stock entitled to vote of the managing corporation; or (2) where a majority of the members of the board of directors of the managing corporation also constitute a majority of the members of the board of directors of the managed corporation, then the management contract must be approved by the stockholders of the managed corporation owning at least two-thirds (2/3) of the total outstanding capital stock entitled to vote, or by at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of a non-stock corporation. No management contract shall be entered into for a period longer than five years for any one term.

The provisions of the next preceding paragraph shall apply to any contract whereby a corporation undertakes to manage or operate all or substantially all of the business of another corporation, whether such contracts are called service contracts, operating agreements or otherwise: Provided, however, That such service contracts or operating agreements which relate to the exploration, development, exploitation or utilization of natural resources may be entered into for such periods as may be provided by the pertinent laws or regulations. (n)

Section 45. Ultra vires acts of corporations. - No corporation under this Code shall possess or exercise any corporate powers except those conferred by this Code or by its articles of incorporation and except such as are necessary or incidental to the exercise of the powers so conferred. (n)

TITLE V - BY LAWS

Section 46. Adoption of by-laws. - Every corporation formed under this Code must, within one (1) month after receipt of official notice of the issuance of its certificate of incorporation by the Securities and Exchange Commission, adopt a code of by-laws for its government not inconsistent with this Code. For the adoption of by-laws by the corporation the affirmative vote of the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or of at least a majority of the members in case of non-stock corporations, shall be necessary. The by-laws shall be signed by the stockholders or members voting for them and shall be kept in the principal office of the corporation, subject to the inspection of the stockholders or members during office hours. A copy thereof, duly certified to by a majority of the directors or trustees countersigned by the secretary of the corporation, shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission which shall be attached to the original articles of incorporation.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, by-laws may be adopted and filed prior to incorporation; in such case, such by-laws shall be approved and signed by all the incorporators and submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission, together with the articles of incorporation.

In all cases, by-laws shall be effective only upon the issuance by the Securities and Exchange Commission of a certification that the by-laws are not inconsistent with this Code.

The Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept for filing the by-laws or any amendment thereto of any bank, banking institution, building and loan association, trust company, insurance company, public utility, educational institution or other special corporations governed by special laws, unless accompanied by a certificate of the appropriate government agency to the effect that such by-laws or amendments are in accordance with law. (20a)

Section 47. Contents of by-laws. - Subject to the provisions of the Constitution, this Code, other special laws, and the articles of incorporation, a private corporation may provide in its by-laws for:

1. The time, place and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the directors or trustees;

2. The time and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the stockholders or members;

3. The required quorum in meetings of stockholders or members and the manner of voting therein;

4. The form for proxies of stockholders and members and the manner of voting them;

5. The qualifications, duties and compensation of directors or trustees, officers and employees;

6. The time for holding the annual election of directors of trustees and the mode or manner of giving notice thereof;

7. The manner of election or appointment and the term of office of all officers other than directors or trustees;

8. The penalties for violation of the by-laws;

9. In the case of stock corporations, the manner of issuing stock certificates; and

10. Such other matters as may be necessary for the proper or convenient transaction of its corporate business and affairs. (21a)

Section 48. Amendments to by-laws. - The board of directors or trustees, by a majority vote thereof, and the owners of at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or at least a majority of the members of a non-stock corporation, at a regular or special meeting duly called for the purpose, may amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws. The owners of two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a non-stock corporation may delegate to the board of directors or trustees the power to amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws: Provided, That any power delegated to the board of directors or trustees to amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws shall be considered as revoked whenever stockholders owning or representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock or a majority of the members in non-stock corporations, shall so vote at a regular or special meeting.

Whenever any amendment or new by-laws are adopted, such amendment or new by-laws shall be attached to the original by-laws in the office of the corporation, and a copy thereof, duly certified under oath by the corporate secretary and a majority of the directors or trustees, shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission the same to be attached to the original articles of incorporation and original by-laws.

The amended or new by-laws shall only be effective upon the issuance by the Securities and Exchange Commission of a certification that the same are not inconsistent with this Code. (22a and 23a)

TITLE VI - MEETINGS

Section 49. Kinds of meetings. - Meetings of directors, trustees, stockholders, or members may be regular or special. (n)

Section 50. Regular and special meetings of stockholders or members. - Regular meetings of stockholders or members shall be held annually on a date fixed in the by-laws, or if not so fixed, on any date in April of every year as determined by the board of directors or trustees: Provided, That written notice of regular meetings shall be sent to all stockholders or members of record at least two (2) weeks prior to the meeting, unless a different period is required by the by-laws.

Special meetings of stockholders or members shall be held at any time deemed necessary or as provided in the by-laws: Provided, however, That at least one (1) week written notice shall be sent to all stockholders or members, unless otherwise provided in the by-laws.

Notice of any meeting may be waived, expressly or impliedly, by any stockholder or member.

Whenever, for any cause, there is no person authorized to call a meeting, the Securities and Exchange Commission, upon petition of a stockholder or member on a showing of good cause therefor, may issue an order to the petitioning stockholder or member directing him to call a meeting of the corporation by giving proper notice required by this Code or by the by-laws. The petitioning stockholder or member shall preside thereat until at least a majority of the stockholders or members present have chosen one of their number as presiding officer. (24, 26)

Section 51. Place and time of meetings of stockholders of members. - Stockholder's or member's meetings, whether regular or special, shall be held in the city or municipality where the principal office of the corporation is located, and if practicable in the principal office of the corporation: Provided, That Metro Manila shall, for purposes of this section, be considered a city or municipality.

Notice of meetings shall be in writing, and the time and place thereof stated therein.

All proceedings had and any business transacted at any meeting of the stockholders or members, if within the powers or authority of the corporation, shall be valid even if the meeting be improperly held or called, provided all the stockholders or members of the corporation are present or duly represented at the meeting. (24 and 25)

Section 52. Quorum in meetings. - Unless otherwise provided for in this Code or in the by-laws, a quorum shall consist of the stockholders representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock or a majority of the members in the case of non-stock corporations. (n)

Section 53. Regular and special meetings of directors or trustees. - Regular meetings of the board of directors or trustees of every corporation shall be held monthly, unless the by-laws provide otherwise.

Special meetings of the board of directors or trustees may be held at any time upon the call of the president or as provided in the by-laws.

Meetings of directors or trustees of corporations may be held anywhere in or outside of the Philippines, unless the by-laws provide otherwise. Notice of regular or special meetings stating the date, time and place of the meeting must be sent to every director or trustee at least one (1) day prior to the scheduled meeting, unless otherwise provided by the by-laws. A director or trustee may waive this requirement, either expressly or impliedly. (n)

Section 54. Who shall preside at meetings. - The president shall preside at all meetings of the directors or trustee as well as of the stockholders or members, unless the by-laws provide otherwise. (n)

Section 55. Right to vote of pledgors, mortgagors, and administrators. - In case of pledged or mortgaged shares in stock corporations, the pledgor or mortgagor shall have the right to attend and vote at meetings of stockholders, unless the pledgee or mortgagee is expressly given by the pledgor or mortgagor such right in writing which is recorded on the appropriate corporate books. (n)

Executors, administrators, receivers, and other legal representatives duly appointed by the court may attend and vote in behalf of the stockholders or members without need of any written proxy. (27a)

Section 56. Voting in case of joint ownership of stock. - In case of shares of stock owned jointly by two or more persons, in order to vote the same, the consent of all the co-owners shall be necessary, unless there is a written proxy, signed by all the co-owners, authorizing one or some of them or any other person to vote such share or shares: Provided, That when the shares are owned in an "and/or" capacity by the holders thereof, any one of the joint owners can vote said shares or appoint a proxy therefor. (n)

Section 57. Voting right for treasury shares. - Treasury shares shall have no voting right as long as such shares remain in the Treasury. (n)

Section 58. Proxies. - Stockholders and members may vote in person or by proxy in all meetings of stockholders or members. Proxies shall in writing, signed by the stockholder or member and filed before the scheduled meeting with the corporate secretary. Unless otherwise provided in the proxy, it shall be valid only for the meeting for which it is intended. No proxy shall be valid and effective for a period longer than five (5) years at any one time. (n)

Section 59. Voting trusts. - One or more stockholders of a stock corporation may create a voting trust for the purpose of conferring upon a trustee or trustees the right to vote and other rights pertaining to the shares for a period not exceeding five (5) years at any time: Provided, That in the case of a voting trust specifically required as a condition in a loan agreement, said voting trust may be for a period exceeding five (5) years but shall automatically expire upon full payment of the loan. A voting trust agreement must be in writing and notarized, and shall specify the terms and conditions thereof. A certified copy of such agreement shall be filed with the corporation and with the Securities and Exchange Commission; otherwise, said agreement is ineffective and unenforceable. The certificate or certificates of stock covered by the voting trust agreement shall be cancelled and new ones shall be issued in the name of the trustee or trustees stating that they are issued pursuant to said agreement. In the books of the corporation, it shall be noted that the transfer in the name of the trustee or trustees is made pursuant to said voting trust agreement.

The trustee or trustees shall execute and deliver to the transferors voting trust certificates, which shall be transferable in the same manner and with the same effect as certificates of stock.

The voting trust agreement filed with the corporation shall be subject to examination by any stockholder of the corporation in the same manner as any other corporate book or record: Provided, That both the transferor and the trustee or trustees may exercise the right of inspection of all corporate books and records in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

Any other stockholder may transfer his shares to the same trustee or trustees upon the terms and conditions stated in the voting trust agreement, and thereupon shall be bound by all the provisions of said agreement.

No voting trust agreement shall be entered into for the purpose of circumventing the law against monopolies and illegal combinations in restraint of trade or used for purposes of fraud.

Unless expressly renewed, all rights granted in a voting trust agreement shall automatically expire at the end of the agreed period, and the voting trust certificates as well as the certificates of stock in the name of the trustee or trustees shall thereby be deemed cancelled and new certificates of stock shall be reissued in the name of the transferors.

The voting trustee or trustees may vote by proxy unless the agreement provides otherwise. (36a)

TITLE VII - STOCKS AND STOCKHOLDERS

Section 60. Subscription contract. - Any contract for the acquisition of unissued stock in an existing corporation or a corporation still to be formed shall be deemed a subscription within the meaning of this Title, notwithstanding the fact that the parties refer to it as a purchase or some other contract. (n)

Section 61. Pre-incorporation subscription. - A subscription for shares of stock of a corporation still to be formed shall be irrevocable for a period of at least six (6) months from the date of subscription, unless all of the other subscribers consent to the revocation, or unless the incorporation of said corporation fails to materialize within said period or within a longer period as may be stipulated in the contract of subscription: Provided, That no pre-incorporation subscription may be revoked after the submission of the articles of incorporation to the Securities and Exchange Commission. (n)

Section 62. Consideration for stocks. - Stocks shall not be issued for a consideration less than the par or issued price thereof. Consideration for the issuance of stock may be any or a combination of any two or more of the following:

1. Actual cash paid to the corporation;

2. Property, tangible or intangible, actually received by the corporation and necessary or convenient for its use and lawful purposes at a fair valuation equal to the par or issued value of the stock issued;

3. Labor performed for or services actually rendered to the corporation;

4. Previously incurred indebtedness of the corporation;

5. Amounts transferred from unrestricted retained earnings to stated capital; and

6. Outstanding shares exchanged for stocks in the event of reclassification or conversion.

Where the consideration is other than actual cash, or consists of intangible property such as patents of copyrights, the valuation thereof shall initially be determined by the incorporators or the board of directors, subject to approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Shares of stock shall not be issued in exchange for promissory notes or future service.

The same considerations provided for in this section, insofar as they may be applicable, may be used for the issuance of bonds by the corporation.

The issued price of no-par value shares may be fixed in the articles of incorporation or by the board of directors pursuant to authority conferred upon it by the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, or in the absence thereof, by the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock at a meeting duly called for the purpose. (5 and 16)

Section 63. Certificate of stock and transfer of shares. - The capital stock of stock corporations shall be divided into shares for which certificates signed by the president or vice president, countersigned by the secretary or assistant secretary, and sealed with the seal of the corporation shall be issued in accordance with the by-laws. Shares of stock so issued are personal property and may be transferred by delivery of the certificate or certificates indorsed by the owner or his attorney-in-fact or other person legally authorized to make the transfer. No transfer, however, shall be valid, except as between the parties, until the transfer is recorded in the books of the corporation showing the names of the parties to the transaction, the date of the transfer, the number of the certificate or certificates and the number of shares transferred.

No shares of stock against which the corporation holds any unpaid claim shall be transferable in the books of the corporation. (35)

Section 64. Issuance of stock certificates. - No certificate of stock shall be issued to a subscriber until the full amount of his subscription together with interest and expenses (in case of delinquent shares), if any is due, has been paid. (37)

Section 65. Liability of directors for watered stocks. - Any director or officer of a corporation consenting to the issuance of stocks for a consideration less than its par or issued value or for a consideration in any form other than cash, valued in excess of its fair value, or who, having knowledge thereof, does not forthwith express his objection in writing and file the same with the corporate secretary, shall be solidarily, liable with the stockholder concerned to the corporation and its creditors for the difference between the fair value received at the time of issuance of the stock and the par or issued value of the same. (n)

Section 66. Interest on unpaid subscriptions. - Subscribers for stock shall pay to the corporation interest on all unpaid subscriptions from the date of subscription, if so required by, and at the rate of interest fixed in the by-laws. If no rate of interest is fixed in the by-laws, such rate shall be deemed to be the legal rate. (37)

Section 67. Payment of balance of subscription. - Subject to the provisions of the contract of subscription, the board of directors of any stock corporation may at any time declare due and payable to the corporation unpaid subscriptions to the capital stock and may collect the same or such percentage thereof, in either case with accrued interest, if any, as it may deem necessary.

Payment of any unpaid subscription or any percentage thereof, together with the interest accrued, if any, shall be made on the date specified in the contract of subscription or on the date stated in the call made by the board. Failure to pay on such date shall render the entire balance due and payable and shall make the stockholder liable for interest at the legal rate on such balance, unless a different rate of interest is provided in the by-laws, computed from such date until full payment. If within thirty (30) days from the said date no payment is made, all stocks covered by said subscription shall thereupon become delinquent and shall be subject to sale as hereinafter provided, unless the board of directors orders otherwise. (38)

Section 68. Delinquency sale. - The board of directors may, by resolution, order the sale of delinquent stock and shall specifically state the amount due on each subscription plus all accrued interest, and the date, time and place of the sale which shall not be less than thirty (30) days nor more than sixty (60) days from the date the stocks become delinquent.

Notice of said sale, with a copy of the resolution, shall be sent to every delinquent stockholder either personally or by registered mail. The same shall furthermore be published once a week for two (2) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the province or city where the principal office of the corporation is located.

Unless the delinquent stockholder pays to the corporation, on or before the date specified for the sale of the delinquent stock, the balance due on his subscription, plus accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of sale, or unless the board of directors otherwise orders, said delinquent stock shall be sold at public auction to such bidder who shall offer to pay the full amount of the balance on the subscription together with accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of sale, for the smallest number of shares or fraction of a share. The stock so purchased shall be transferred to such purchaser in the books of the corporation and a certificate for such stock shall be issued in his favor. The remaining shares, if any, shall be credited in favor of the delinquent stockholder who shall likewise be entitled to the issuance of a certificate of stock covering such shares.

Should there be no bidder at the public auction who offers to pay the full amount of the balance on the subscription together with accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of sale, for the smallest number of shares or fraction of a share, the corporation may, subject to the provisions of this Code, bid for the same, and the total amount due shall be credited as paid in full in the books of the corporation. Title to all the shares of stock covered by the subscription shall be vested in the corporation as treasury shares and may be disposed of by said corporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code. (39a-46a)

Section 69. When sale may be questioned. - No action to recover delinquent stock sold can be sustained upon the ground of irregularity or defect in the notice of sale, or in the sale itself of the delinquent stock, unless the party seeking to maintain such action first pays or tenders to the party holding the stock the sum for which the same was sold, with interest from the date of sale at the legal rate; and no such action shall be maintained unless it is commenced by the filing of a complaint within six (6) months from the date of sale. (47a)

Section 70. Court action to recover unpaid subscription. - Nothing in this Code shall prevent the corporation from collecting by action in a court of proper jurisdiction the amount due on any unpaid subscription, with accrued interest, costs and expenses. (49a)

Section 71. Effect of delinquency. - No delinquent stock shall be voted for or be entitled to vote or to representation at any stockholder's meeting, nor shall the holder thereof be entitled to any of the rights of a stockholder except the right to dividends in accordance with the provisions of this Code, until and unless he pays the amount due on his subscription with accrued interest, and the costs and expenses of advertisement, if any. (50a)

Section 72. Rights of unpaid shares. - Holders of subscribed shares not fully paid which are not delinquent shall have all the rights of a stockholder. (n)

Section 73. Lost or destroyed certificates. - The following procedure shall be followed for the issuance by a corporation of new certificates of stock in lieu of those which have been lost, stolen or destroyed:

1. The registered owner of a certificate of stock in a corporation or his legal representative shall file with the corporation an affidavit in triplicate setting forth, if possible, the circumstances as to how the certificate was lost, stolen or destroyed, the number of shares represented by such certificate, the serial number of the certificate and the name of the corporation which issued the same. He shall also submit such other information and evidence which he may deem necessary;

2. After verifying the affidavit and other information and evidence with the books of the corporation, said corporation shall publish a notice in a newspaper of general circulation published in the place where the corporation has its principal office, once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks at the expense of the registered owner of the certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed. The notice shall state the name of said corporation, the name of the registered owner and the serial number of said certificate, and the number of shares represented by such certificate, and that after the expiration of one (1) year from the date of the last publication, if no contest has been presented to said corporation regarding said certificate of stock, the right to make such contest shall be barred and said corporation shall cancel in its books the certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed and issue in lieu thereof new certificate of stock, unless the registered owner files a bond or other security in lieu thereof as may be required, effective for a period of one (1) year, for such amount and in such form and with such sureties as may be satisfactory to the board of directors, in which case a new certificate may be issued even before the expiration of the one (1) year period provided herein: Provided, That if a contest has been presented to said corporation or if an action is pending in court regarding the ownership of said certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed, the issuance of the new certificate of stock in lieu thereof shall be suspended until the final decision by the court regarding the ownership of said certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed.

Except in case of fraud, bad faith, or negligence on the part of the corporation and its officers, no action may be brought against any corporation which shall have issued certificate of stock in lieu of those lost, stolen or destroyed pursuant to the procedure above-described. (R.A. 201a)

TITLE VIII - CORPORATE BOOKS AND RECORDS

Section 74. Books to be kept; stock transfer agent. - Every corporation shall keep and carefully preserve at its principal office a record of all business transactions and minutes of all meetings of stockholders or members, or of the board of directors or trustees, in which shall be set forth in detail the time and place of holding the meeting, how authorized, the notice given, whether the meeting was regular or special, if special its object, those present and absent, and every act done or ordered done at the meeting. Upon the demand of any director, trustee, stockholder or member, the time when any director, trustee, stockholder or member entered or left the meeting must be noted in the minutes; and on a similar demand, the yeas and nays must be taken on any motion or proposition, and a record thereof carefully made. The protest of any director, trustee, stockholder or member on any action or proposed action must be recorded in full on his demand.

The records of all business transactions of the corporation and the minutes of any meetings shall be open to inspection by any director, trustee, stockholder or member of the corporation at reasonable hours on business days and he may demand, in writing, for a copy of excerpts from said records or minutes, at his expense.

Any officer or agent of the corporation who shall refuse to allow any director, trustees, stockholder or member of the corporation to examine and copy excerpts from its records or minutes, in accordance with the provisions of this Code, shall be liable to such director, trustee, stockholder or member for damages, and in addition, shall be guilty of an offense which shall be punishable under Section 144 of this Code: Provided, That if such refusal is made pursuant to a resolution or order of the board of directors or trustees, the liability under this section for such action shall be imposed upon the directors or trustees who voted for such refusal: and Provided, further, That it shall be a defense to any action under this section that the person demanding to examine and copy excerpts from the corporation's records and minutes has improperly used any information secured through any prior examination of the records or minutes of such corporation or of any other corporation, or was not acting in good faith or for a legitimate purpose in making his demand.

Stock corporations must also keep a book to be known as the "stock and transfer book", in which must be kept a record of all stocks in the names of the stockholders alphabetically arranged; the installments paid and unpaid on all stock for which subscription has been made, and the date of payment of any installment; a statement of every alienation, sale or transfer of stock made, the date thereof, and by and to whom made; and such other entries as the by-laws may prescribe. The stock and transfer book shall be kept in the principal office of the corporation or in the office of its stock transfer agent and shall be open for inspection by any director or stockholder of the corporation at reasonable hours on business days.

No stock transfer agent or one engaged principally in the business of registering transfers of stocks in behalf of a stock corporation shall be allowed to operate in the Philippines unless he secures a license from the Securities and Exchange Commission and pays a fee as may be fixed by the Commission, which shall be renewable annually: Provided, That a stock corporation is not precluded from performing or making transfer of its own stocks, in which case all the rules and regulations imposed on stock transfer agents, except the payment of a license fee herein provided, shall be applicable. (51a and 32a; P.B. No. 268.)

Section 75. Right to financial statements. - Within ten (10) days from receipt of a written request of any stockholder or member, the corporation shall furnish to him its most recent financial statement, which shall include a balance sheet as of the end of the last taxable year and a profit or loss statement for said taxable year, showing in reasonable detail its assets and liabilities and the result of its operations.

At the regular meeting of stockholders or members, the board of directors or trustees shall present to such stockholders or members a financial report of the operations of the corporation for the preceding year, which shall include financial statements, duly signed and certified by an independent certified public accountant.

However, if the paid-up capital of the corporation is less than P50,000.00, the financial statements may be certified under oath by the treasurer or any responsible officer of the corporation. (n)

TITLE IX - MERGER AND CONSOLIDATION

Section 76. Plan or merger of consolidation. - Two or more corporations may merge into a single corporation which shall be one of the constituent corporations or may consolidate into a new single corporation which shall be the consolidated corporation.

The board of directors or trustees of each corporation, party to the merger or consolidation, shall approve a plan of merger or consolidation setting forth the following:

1. The names of the corporations proposing to merge or consolidate, hereinafter referred to as the constituent corporations;

2. The terms of the merger or consolidation and the mode of carrying the same into effect;

3. A statement of the changes, if any, in the articles of incorporation of the surviving corporation in case of merger; and, with respect to the consolidated corporation in case of consolidation, all the statements required to be set forth in the articles of incorporation for corporations organized under this Code; and

4. Such other provisions with respect to the proposed merger or consolidation as are deemed necessary or desirable. (n)

Section 77. Stockholder's or member's approval. - Upon approval by majority vote of each of the board of directors or trustees of the constituent corporations of the plan of merger or consolidation, the same shall be submitted for approval by the stockholders or members of each of such corporations at separate corporate meetings duly called for the purpose. Notice of such meetings shall be given to all stockholders or members of the respective corporations, at least two (2) weeks prior to the date of the meeting, either personally or by registered mail. Said notice shall state the purpose of the meeting and shall include a copy or a summary of the plan of merger or consolidation. The affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock of each corporation in the case of stock corporations or at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of non-stock corporations shall be necessary for the approval of such plan. Any dissenting stockholder in stock corporations may exercise his appraisal right in accordance with the Code: Provided, That if after the approval by the stockholders of such plan, the board of directors decides to abandon the plan, the appraisal right shall be extinguished.

Any amendment to the plan of merger or consolidation may be made, provided such amendment is approved by majority vote of the respective boards of directors or trustees of all the constituent corporations and ratified by the affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of two-thirds (2/3) of the members of each of the constituent corporations. Such plan, together with any amendment, shall be considered as the agreement of merger or consolidation. (n)

Section 78. Articles of merger or consolidation. - After the approval by the stockholders or members as required by the preceding section, articles of merger or articles of consolidation shall be executed by each of the constituent corporations, to be signed by the president or vice-president and certified by the secretary or assistant secretary of each corporation setting forth:

1. The plan of the merger or the plan of consolidation;

2. As to stock corporations, the number of shares outstanding, or in the case of non-stock corporations, the number of members; and

3. As to each corporation, the number of shares or members voting for and against such plan, respectively. (n)

Section 79. Effectivity of merger or consolidation. - The articles of merger or of consolidation, signed and certified as herein above required, shall be submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission in quadruplicate for its approval: Provided, That in the case of merger or consolidation of banks or banking institutions, building and loan associations, trust companies, insurance companies, public utilities, educational institutions and other special corporations governed by special laws, the favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency shall first be obtained. If the Commission is satisfied that the merger or consolidation of the corporations concerned is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Code and existing laws, it shall issue a certificate of merger or of consolidation, at which time the merger or consolidation shall be effective.

If, upon investigation, the Securities and Exchange Commission has reason to believe that the proposed merger or consolidation is contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of this Code or existing laws, it shall set a hearing to give the corporations concerned the opportunity to be heard. Written notice of the date, time and place of hearing shall be given to each constituent corporation at least two (2) weeks before said hearing. The Commission shall thereafter proceed as provided in this Code. (n)

Section 80. Effects of merger or consolidation. - The merger or consolidation shall have the following effects:

1. The constituent corporations shall become a single corporation which, in case of merger, shall be the surviving corporation designated in the plan of merger; and, in case of consolidation, shall be the consolidated corporation designated in the plan of consolidation;

2. The separate existence of the constituent corporations shall cease, except that of the surviving or the consolidated corporation;

3. The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall possess all the rights, privileges, immunities and powers and shall be subject to all the duties and liabilities of a corporation organized under this Code;

4. The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall thereupon and thereafter possess all the rights, privileges, immunities and franchises of each of the constituent corporations; and all property, real or personal, and all receivables due on whatever account, including subscriptions to shares and other choses in action, and all and every other interest of, or belonging to, or due to each constituent corporation, shall be deemed transferred to and vested in such surviving or consolidated corporation without further act or deed; and

5. The surviving or consolidated corporation shall be responsible and liable for all the liabilities and obligations of each of the constituent corporations in the same manner as if such surviving or consolidated corporation had itself incurred such liabilities or obligations; and any pending claim, action or proceeding brought by or against any of such constituent corporations may be prosecuted by or against the surviving or consolidated corporation. The rights of creditors or liens upon the property of any of such constituent corporations shall not be impaired by such merger or consolidation. (n)

TITLE X - APPRAISAL RIGHT

Section 81. Instances of appraisal right. - Any stockholder of a corporation shall have the right to dissent and demand payment of the fair value of his shares in the following instances:

1. In case any amendment to the articles of incorporation has the effect of changing or restricting the rights of any stockholder or class of shares, or of authorizing preferences in any respect superior to those of outstanding shares of any class, or of extending or shortening the term of corporate existence;

2. In case of sale, lease, exchange, transfer, mortgage, pledge or other disposition of all or substantially all of the corporate property and assets as provided in the Code; and

3. In case of merger or consolidation. (n)

Section 82. How right is exercised. - The appraisal right may be exercised by any stockholder who shall have voted against the proposed corporate action, by making a written demand on the corporation within thirty (30) days after the date on which the vote was taken for payment of the fair value of his shares: Provided, That failure to make the demand within such period shall be deemed a waiver of the appraisal right. If the proposed corporate action is implemented or affected, the corporation shall pay to such stockholder, upon surrender of the certificate or certificates of stock representing his shares, the fair value thereof as of the day prior to the date on which the vote was taken, excluding any appreciation or depreciation in anticipation of such corporate action.

If within a period of sixty (60) days from the date the corporate action was approved by the stockholders, the withdrawing stockholder and the corporation cannot agree on the fair value of the shares, it shall be determined and appraised by three (3) disinterested persons, one of whom shall be named by the stockholder, another by the corporation, and the third by the two thus chosen. The findings of the majority of the appraisers shall be final, and their award shall be paid by the corporation within thirty (30) days after such award is made: Provided, That no payment shall be made to any dissenting stockholder unless the corporation has unrestricted retained earnings in its books to cover such payment: and Provided, further, That upon payment by the corporation of the agreed or awarded price, the stockholder shall forthwith transfer his shares to the corporation. (n)

Section 83. Effect of demand and termination of right. - From the time of demand for payment of the fair value of a stockholder's shares until either the abandonment of the corporate action involved or the purchase of the said shares by the corporation, all rights accruing to such shares, including voting and dividend rights, shall be suspended in accordance with the provisions of this Code, except the right of such stockholder to receive payment of the fair value thereof: Provided, That if the dissenting stockholder is not paid the value of his shares within 30 days after the award, his voting and dividend rights shall immediately be restored. (n)

Section 84. When right to payment ceases. - No demand for payment under this Title may be withdrawn unless the corporation consents thereto. If, however, such demand for payment is withdrawn with the consent of the corporation, or if the proposed corporate action is abandoned or rescinded by the corporation or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission where such approval is necessary, or if the Securities and Exchange Commission determines that such stockholder is not entitled to the appraisal right, then the right of said stockholder to be paid the fair value of his shares shall cease, his status as a stockholder shall thereupon be restored, and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on his shares shall be paid to him. (n)

Section 85. Who bears costs of appraisal. - The costs and expenses of appraisal shall be borne by the corporation, unless the fair value ascertained by the appraisers is approximately the same as the price which the corporation may have offered to pay the stockholder, in which case they shall be borne by the latter. In the case of an action to recover such fair value, all costs and expenses shall be assessed against the corporation, unless the refusal of the stockholder to receive payment was unjustified. (n)

Section 86. Notation on certificates; rights of transferee. - Within ten (10) days after demanding payment for his shares, a dissenting stockholder shall submit the certificates of stock representing his shares to the corporation for notation thereon that such shares are dissenting shares. His failure to do so shall, at the option of the corporation, terminate his rights under this Title. If shares represented by the certificates bearing such notation are transferred, and the certificates consequently cancelled, the rights of the transferor as a dissenting stockholder under this Title shall cease and the transferee shall have all the rights of a regular stockholder; and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on such shares shall be paid to the transferee. (n)

TITLE XI - NON-STOCK CORPORATIONS

Section 87. Definition. - For the purposes of this Code, a non-stock corporation is one where no part of its income is distributable as dividends to its members, trustees, or officers, subject to the provisions of this Code on dissolution: Provided, That any profit which a non-stock corporation may obtain as an incident to its operations shall, whenever necessary or proper, be used for the furtherance of the purpose or purposes for which the corporation was organized, subject to the provisions of this Title.

The provisions governing stock corporation, when pertinent, shall be applicable to non-stock corporations, except as may be covered by specific provisions of this Title. (n)

Section 88. Purposes. - Non-stock corporations may be formed or organized for charitable, religious, educational, professional, cultural, fraternal, literary, scientific, social, civic service, or similar purposes, like trade, industry, agricultural and like chambers, or any combination thereof, subject to the special provisions of this Title governing particular classes of non-stock corporations. (n)

CHAPTER I
MEMBERS

Section 89. Right to vote. - The right of the members of any class or classes to vote may be limited, broadened or denied to the extent specified in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws. Unless so limited, broadened or denied, each member, regardless of class, shall be entitled to one vote.

Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, a member may vote by proxy in accordance with the provisions of this Code. (n)

Voting by mail or other similar means by members of non-stock corporations may be authorized by the by-laws of non-stock corporations with the approval of, and under such conditions which may be prescribed by, the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Section 90. Non-transferability of membership. - Membership in a non-stock corporation and all rights arising therefrom are personal and non-transferable, unless the articles of incorporation or the by-laws otherwise provide. (n)

Section 91. Termination of membership. - Membership shall be terminated in the manner and for the causes provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws. Termination of membership shall have the effect of extinguishing all rights of a member in the corporation or in its property, unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws. (n)

CHAPTER II
TRUSTEES AND OFFICES

Section 92. Election and term of trustees. - Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, the board of trustees of non-stock corporations, which may be more than fifteen (15) in number as may be fixed in their articles of incorporation or by-laws, shall, as soon as organized, so classify themselves that the term of office of one-third (1/3) of their number shall expire every year; and subsequent elections of trustees comprising one-third (1/3) of the board of trustees shall be held annually and trustees so elected shall have a term of three (3) years. Trustees thereafter elected to fill vacancies occurring before the expiration of a particular term shall hold office only for the unexpired period.

No person shall be elected as trustee unless he is a member of the corporation.

Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, officers of a non-stock corporation may be directly elected by the members. (n)

Section 93. Place of meetings. - The by-laws may provide that the members of a non-stock corporation may hold their regular or special meetings at any place even outside the place where the principal office of the corporation is located: Provided, That proper notice is sent to all members indicating the date, time and place of the meeting: and Provided, further, That the place of meeting shall be within the Philippines. (n)

CHAPTER III
DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS IN NON-STOCK CORPORATIONS

Section 94. Rules of distribution. - In case dissolution of a non-stock corporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code, its assets shall be applied and distributed as follows:

1. All liabilities and obligations of the corporation shall be paid, satisfied and discharged, or adequate provision shall be made therefore;

2. Assets held by the corporation upon a condition requiring return, transfer or conveyance, and which condition occurs by reason of the dissolution, shall be returned, transferred or conveyed in accordance with such requirements;

3. Assets received and held by the corporation subject to limitations permitting their use only for charitable, religious, benevolent, educational or similar purposes, but not held upon a condition requiring return, transfer or conveyance by reason of the dissolution, shall be transferred or conveyed to one or more corporations, societies or organizations engaged in activities in the Philippines substantially similar to those of the dissolving corporation according to a plan of distribution adopted pursuant to this Chapter;

4. Assets other than those mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, if any, shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, to the extent that the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, determine the distributive rights of members, or any class or classes of members, or provide for distribution; and

5. In any other case, assets may be distributed to such persons, societies, organizations or corporations, whether or not organized for profit, as may be specified in a plan of distribution adopted pursuant to this Chapter. (n)

Section 95. Plan of distribution of assets. - A plan providing for the distribution of assets, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Title, may be adopted by a non-stock corporation in the process of dissolution in the following manner:

The board of trustees shall, by majority vote, adopt a resolution recommending a plan of distribution and directing the submission thereof to a vote at a regular or special meeting of members having voting rights. Written notice setting forth the proposed plan of distribution or a summary thereof and the date, time and place of such meeting shall be given to each member entitled to vote, within the time and in the manner provided in this Code for the giving of notice of meetings to members. Such plan of distribution shall be adopted upon approval of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members having voting rights present or represented by proxy at such meeting. (n)

TITLE XII - CLOSE CORPORATIONS

Section 96. Definition and applicability of Title. - A close corporation, within the meaning of this Code, is one whose articles of incorporation provide that: (1) All the corporation's issued stock of all classes, exclusive of treasury shares, shall be held of record by not more than a specified number of persons, not exceeding twenty (20); (2) all the issued stock of all classes shall be subject to one or more specified restrictions on transfer permitted by this Title; and (3) The corporation shall not list in any stock exchange or make any public offering of any of its stock of any class. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a corporation shall not be deemed a close corporation when at least two-thirds (2/3) of its voting stock or voting rights is owned or controlled by another corporation which is not a close corporation within the meaning of this Code.

Any corporation may be incorporated as a close corporation, except mining or oil companies, stock exchanges, banks, insurance companies, public utilities, educational institutions and corporations declared to be vested with public interest in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

The provisions of this Title shall primarily govern close corporations: Provided, That the provisions of other Titles of this Code shall apply suppletorily except insofar as this Title otherwise provides.

Section 97. Articles of incorporation. - The articles of incorporation of a close corporation may provide:

1. For a classification of shares or rights and the qualifications for owning or holding the same and restrictions on their transfers as may be stated therein, subject to the provisions of the following section;

2. For a classification of directors into one or more classes, each of whom may be voted for and elected solely by a particular class of stock; and

3. For a greater quorum or voting requirements in meetings of stockholders or directors than those provided in this Code.

The articles of incorporation of a close corporation may provide that the business of the corporation shall be managed by the stockholders of the corporation rather than by a board of directors. So long as this provision continues in effect:

1. No meeting of stockholders need be called to elect directors;

2. Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the stockholders of the corporation shall be deemed to be directors for the purpose of applying the provisions of this Code; and

3. The stockholders of the corporation shall be subject to all liabilities of directors.

The articles of incorporation may likewise provide that all officers or employees or that specified officers or employees shall be elected or appointed by the stockholders, instead of by the board of directors.

Section 98. Validity of restrictions on transfer of shares. - Restrictions on the right to transfer shares must appear in the articles of incorporation and in the by-laws as well as in the certificate of stock; otherwise, the same shall not be binding on any purchaser thereof in good faith. Said restrictions shall not be more onerous than granting the existing stockholders or the corporation the option to purchase the shares of the transferring stockholder with such reasonable terms, conditions or period stated therein. If upon the expiration of said period, the existing stockholders or the corporation fails to exercise the option to purchase, the transferring stockholder may sell his shares to any third person.

Section 99. Effects of issuance or transfer of stock in breach of qualifying conditions. -

1. If stock of a close corporation is issued or transferred to any person who is not entitled under any provision of the articles of incorporation to be a holder of record of its stock, and if the certificate for such stock conspicuously shows the qualifications of the persons entitled to be holders of record thereof, such person is conclusively presumed to have notice of the fact of his ineligibility to be a stockholder.

2. If the articles of incorporation of a close corporation states the number of persons, not exceeding twenty (20), who are entitled to be holders of record of its stock, and if the certificate for such stock conspicuously states such number, and if the issuance or transfer of stock to any person would cause the stock to be held by more than such number of persons, the person to whom such stock is issued or transferred is conclusively presumed to have notice of this fact.

3. If a stock certificate of any close corporation conspicuously shows a restriction on transfer of stock of the corporation, the transferee of the stock is conclusively presumed to have notice of the fact that he has acquired stock in violation of the restriction, if such acquisition violates the restriction.

4. Whenever any person to whom stock of a close corporation has been issued or transferred has, or is conclusively presumed under this section to have, notice either (a) that he is a person not eligible to be a holder of stock of the corporation, or (b) that transfer of stock to him would cause the stock of the corporation to be held by more than the number of persons permitted by its articles of incorporation to hold stock of the corporation, or (c) that the transfer of stock is in violation of a restriction on transfer of stock, the corporation may, at its option, refuse to register the transfer of stock in the name of the transferee.

5. The provisions of subsection (4) shall not be applicable if the transfer of stock, though contrary to subsections (1), (2) or (3), has been consented to by all the stockholders of the close corporation, or if the close corporation has amended its articles of incorporation in accordance with this Title.

6. The term "transfer", as used in this section, is not limited to a transfer for value.

7. The provisions of this section shall not impair any right which the transferee may have to rescind the transfer or to recover under any applicable warranty, express or implied.

Section 100. Agreements by stockholders. -

1. Agreements by and among stockholders executed before the formation and organization of a close corporation, signed by all stockholders, shall survive the incorporation of such corporation and shall continue to be valid and binding between and among such stockholders, if such be their intent, to the extent that such agreements are not inconsistent with the articles of incorporation, irrespective of where the provisions of such agreements are contained, except those required by this Title to be embodied in said articles of incorporation.

2. An agreement between two or more stockholders, if in writing and signed by the parties thereto, may provide that in exercising any voting rights, the shares held by them shall be voted as therein provided, or as they may agree, or as determined in accordance with a procedure agreed upon by them.

3. No provision in any written agreement signed by the stockholders, relating to any phase of the corporate affairs, shall be invalidated as between the parties on the ground that its effect is to make them partners among themselves.

4. A written agreement among some or all of the stockholders in a close corporation shall not be invalidated on the ground that it so relates to the conduct of the business and affairs of the corporation as to restrict or interfere with the discretion or powers of the board of directors: Provided, That such agreement shall impose on the stockholders who are parties thereto the liabilities for managerial acts imposed by this Code on directors.

5. To the extent that the stockholders are actively engaged in the management or operation of the business and affairs of a close corporation, the stockholders shall be held to strict fiduciary duties to each other and among themselves. Said stockholders shall be personally liable for corporate torts unless the corporation has obtained reasonably adequate liability insurance.

Section 101. When board meeting is unnecessary or improperly held. - Unless the by-laws provide otherwise, any action by the directors of a close corporation without a meeting shall nevertheless be deemed valid if:

1. Before or after such action is taken, written consent thereto is signed by all the directors; or

2. All the stockholders have actual or implied knowledge of the action and make no prompt objection thereto in writing; or

3. The directors are accustomed to take informal action with the express or implied acquiescence of all the stockholders; or

4. All the directors have express or implied knowledge of the action in question and none of them makes prompt objection thereto in writing.

If a director's meeting is held without proper call or notice, an action taken therein within the corporate powers is deemed ratified by a director who failed to attend, unless he promptly files his written objection with the secretary of the corporation after having knowledge thereof.

Section 102. Pre-emptive right in close corporations. - The pre-emptive right of stockholders in close corporations shall extend to all stock to be issued, including reissuance of treasury shares, whether for money, property or personal services, or in payment of corporate debts, unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise.

Section 103. Amendment of articles of incorporation. - Any amendment to the articles of incorporation which seeks to delete or remove any provision required by this Title to be contained in the articles of incorporation or to reduce a quorum or voting requirement stated in said articles of incorporation shall not be valid or effective unless approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, whether with or without voting rights, or of such greater proportion of shares as may be specifically provided in the articles of incorporation for amending, deleting or removing any of the aforesaid provisions, at a meeting duly called for the purpose.

Section 104. Deadlocks. - Notwithstanding any contrary provision in the articles of incorporation or by-laws or agreement of stockholders of a close corporation, if the directors or stockholders are so divided respecting the management of the corporation's business and affairs that the votes required for any corporate action cannot be obtained, with the consequence that the business and affairs of the corporation can no longer be conducted to the advantage of the stockholders generally, the Securities and Exchange Commission, upon written petition by any stockholder, shall have the power to arbitrate the dispute. In the exercise of such power, the Commission shall have authority to make such order as it deems appropriate, including an order: (1) cancelling or altering any provision contained in the articles of incorporation, by-laws, or any stockholder's agreement; (2) cancelling, altering or enjoining any resolution or act of the corporation or its board of directors, stockholders, or officers; (3) directing or prohibiting any act of the corporation or its board of directors, stockholders, officers, or other persons party to the action; (4) requiring the purchase at their fair value of shares of any stockholder, either by the corporation regardless of the availability of unrestricted retained earnings in its books, or by the other stockholders; (5) appointing a provisional director; (6) dissolving the corporation; or (7) granting such other relief as the circumstances may warrant.

A provisional director shall be an impartial person who is neither a stockholder nor a creditor of the corporation or of any subsidiary or affiliate of the corporation, and whose further qualifications, if any, may be determined by the Commission. A provisional director is not a receiver of the corporation and does not have the title and powers of a custodian or receiver. A provisional director shall have all the rights and powers of a duly elected director of the corporation, including the right to notice of and to vote at meetings of directors, until such time as he shall be removed by order of the Commission or by all the stockholders. His compensation shall be determined by agreement between him and the corporation subject to approval of the Commission, which may fix his compensation in the absence of agreement or in the event of disagreement between the provisional director and the corporation.

Section 105. Withdrawal of stockholder or dissolution of corporation. - In addition and without prejudice to other rights and remedies available to a stockholder under this Title, any stockholder of a close corporation may, for any reason, compel the said corporation to purchase his shares at their fair value, which shall not be less than their par or issued value, when the corporation has sufficient assets in its books to cover its debts and liabilities exclusive of capital stock: Provided, That any stockholder of a close corporation may, by written petition to the Securities and Exchange Commission, compel the dissolution of such corporation whenever any of acts of the directors, officers or those in control of the corporation is illegal, or fraudulent, or dishonest, or oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to the corporation or any stockholder, or whenever corporate assets are being misapplied or wasted.

TITLE XIII - SPECIAL CORPORATIONS
CHAPTER I
EDUCATIONAL CORPORATIONS

Section 106. Incorporation. - Educational corporations shall be governed by special laws and by the general provisions of this Code. (n)

Section 107. Pre-requisites to incorporation. - Except upon favorable recommendation of the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept or approve the articles of incorporation and by-laws of any educational institution. (168a)

Section 108. Board of trustees. - Trustees of educational institutions organized as non-stock corporations shall not be less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15): Provided, however, That the number of trustees shall be in multiples of five (5).

Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation on the by-laws, the board of trustees of incorporated schools, colleges, or other institutions of learning shall, as soon as organized, so classify themselves that the term of office of one-fifth (1/5) of their number shall expire every year. Trustees thereafter elected to fill vacancies, occurring before the expiration of a particular term, shall hold office only for the unexpired period. Trustees elected thereafter to fill vacancies caused by expiration of term shall hold office for five (5) years. A majority of the trustees shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The powers and authority of trustees shall be defined in the by-laws.

For institutions organized as stock corporations, the number and term of directors shall be governed by the provisions on stock corporations. (169a)

CHAPTER II
RELIGIOUS CORPORATIONS

Section 109. Classes of religious corporations. - Religious corporations may be incorporated by one or more persons. Such corporations may be classified into corporations sole and religious societies.

Religious corporations shall be governed by this Chapter and by the general provisions on non-stock corporations insofar as they may be applicable. (n)

Section 110. Corporation sole. - For the purpose of administering and managing, as trustee, the affairs, property and temporalities of any religious denomination, sect or church, a corporation sole may be formed by the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or other presiding elder of such religious denomination, sect or church. (154a)

Section 111. Articles of incorporation. - In order to become a corporation sole, the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder of any religious denomination, sect or church must file with the Securities and Exchange Commission articles of incorporation setting forth the following:

1. That he is the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder of his religious denomination, sect or church and that he desires to become a corporation sole;

2. That the rules, regulations and discipline of his religious denomination, sect or church are not inconsistent with his becoming a corporation sole and do not forbid it;

3. That as such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder, he is charged with the administration of the temporalities and the management of the affairs, estate and properties of his religious denomination, sect or church within his territorial jurisdiction, describing such territorial jurisdiction;

4. The manner in which any vacancy occurring in the office of chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi of presiding elder is required to be filled, according to the rules, regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church to which he belongs; and

5. The place where the principal office of the corporation sole is to be established and located, which place must be within the Philippines.

The articles of incorporation may include any other provision not contrary to law for the regulation of the affairs of the corporation. (n)

Section 112. Submission of the articles of incorporation. - The articles of incorporation must be verified, before filing, by affidavit or affirmation of the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder, as the case may be, and accompanied by a copy of the commission, certificate of election or letter of appointment of such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder, duly certified to be correct by any notary public.

From and after the filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission of the said articles of incorporation, verified by affidavit or affirmation, and accompanied by the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder shall become a corporation sole and all temporalities, estate and properties of the religious denomination, sect or church theretofore administered or managed by him as such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder shall be held in trust by him as a corporation sole, for the use, purpose, behalf and sole benefit of his religious denomination, sect or church, including hospitals, schools, colleges, orphan asylums, parsonages and cemeteries thereof. (n)

Section 113. Acquisition and alienation of property. - Any corporation sole may purchase and hold real estate and personal property for its church, charitable, benevolent or educational purposes, and may receive bequests or gifts for such purposes. Such corporation may sell or mortgage real property held by it by obtaining an order for that purpose from the Court of First Instance of the province where the property is situated upon proof made to the satisfaction of the court that notice of the application for leave to sell or mortgage has been given by publication or otherwise in such manner and for such time as said court may have directed, and that it is to the interest of the corporation that leave to sell or mortgage should be granted. The application for leave to sell or mortgage must be made by petition, duly verified, by the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder acting as corporation sole, and may be opposed by any member of the religious denomination, sect or church represented by the corporation sole: Provided, That in cases where the rules, regulations and discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church, religious society or order concerned represented by such corporation sole regulate the method of acquiring, holding, selling and mortgaging real estate and personal property, such rules, regulations and discipline shall control, and the intervention of the courts shall not be necessary. (159a)

Section 114. Filling of vacancies. - The successors in office of any chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder in a corporation sole shall become the corporation sole on their accession to office and shall be permitted to transact business as such on the filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission of a copy of their commission, certificate of election, or letters of appointment, duly certified by any notary public.

During any vacancy in the office of chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder of any religious denomination, sect or church incorporated as a corporation sole, the person or persons authorized and empowered by the rules, regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church represented by the corporation sole to administer the temporalities and manage the affairs, estate and properties of the corporation sole during the vacancy shall exercise all the powers and authority of the corporation sole during such vacancy. (158a)

Section 115. Dissolution. - A corporation sole may be dissolved and its affairs settled voluntarily by submitting to the Securities and Exchange Commission a verified declaration of dissolution.

The declaration of dissolution shall set forth:

1. The name of the corporation;

2. The reason for dissolution and winding up;

3. The authorization for the dissolution of the corporation by the particular religious denomination, sect or church;

4. The names and addresses of the persons who are to supervise the winding up of the affairs of the corporation.

Upon approval of such declaration of dissolution by the Securities and Exchange Commission, the corporation shall cease to carry on its operations except for the purpose of winding up its affairs. (n)

Section 116. Religious societies. - Any religious society or religious order, or any diocese, synod, or district organization of any religious denomination, sect or church, unless forbidden by the constitution, rules, regulations, or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church of which it is a part, or by competent authority, may, upon written consent and/or by an affirmative vote at a meeting called for the purpose of at least two-thirds (2/3) of its membership, incorporate for the administration of its temporalities or for the management of its affairs, properties and estate by filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, articles of incorporation verified by the affidavit of the presiding elder, secretary, or clerk or other member of such religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization of the religious denomination, sect or church, setting forth the following:

1. That the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization is a religious organization of a religious denomination, sect or church;

2. That at least two-thirds (2/3) of its membership have given their written consent or have voted to incorporate, at a duly convened meeting of the body;

3. That the incorporation of the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization desiring to incorporate is not forbidden by competent authority or by the constitution, rules, regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect, or church of which it forms a part;

4. That the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization desires to incorporate for the administration of its affairs, properties and estate;

5. The place where the principal office of the corporation is to be established and located, which place must be within the Philippines; and

         1. The names, nationalities, and residences of the trustees elected by the religious society or religious order, or the diocese, synod, or district organization to serve for the first year or such other period as may be prescribed by the laws of the religious society or religious order, or of the diocese, synod, or district organization, the board of trustees to be not less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15). (160a)

TITLE XIV - DISSOLUTION

Section 117. Methods of dissolution. - A corporation formed or organized under the provisions of this Code may be dissolved voluntarily or involuntarily. (n)

Section 118. Voluntary dissolution where no creditors are affected. - If dissolution of a corporation does not prejudice the rights of any creditor having a claim against it, the dissolution may be effected by majority vote of the board of directors or trustees, and by a resolution duly adopted by the affirmative vote of the stockholders owning at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members of a meeting to be held upon call of the directors or trustees after publication of the notice of time, place and object of the meeting for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper published in the place where the principal office of said corporation is located; and if no newspaper is published in such place, then in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines, after sending such notice to each stockholder or member either by registered mail or by personal delivery at least thirty (30) days prior to said meeting. A copy of the resolution authorizing the dissolution shall be certified by a majority of the board of directors or trustees and countersigned by the secretary of the corporation. The Securities and Exchange Commission shall thereupon issue the certificate of dissolution. (62a)

Section 119. Voluntary dissolution where creditors are affected. - Where the dissolution of a corporation may prejudice the rights of any creditor, the petition for dissolution shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The petition shall be signed by a majority of its board of directors or trustees or other officers having the management of its affairs, verified by its president or secretary or one of its directors or trustees, and shall set forth all claims and demands against it, and that its dissolution was resolved upon by the affirmative vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or by at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members at a meeting of its stockholders or members called for that purpose.

If the petition is sufficient in form and substance, the Commission shall, by an order reciting the purpose of the petition, fix a date on or before which objections thereto may be filed by any person, which date shall not be less than thirty (30) days nor more than sixty (60) days after the entry of the order. Before such date, a copy of the order shall be published at least once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation published in the municipality or city where the principal office of the corporation is situated, or if there be no such newspaper, then in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines, and a similar copy shall be posted for three (3) consecutive weeks in three (3) public places in such municipality or city.

Upon five (5) day's notice, given after the date on which the right to file objections as fixed in the order has expired, the Commission shall proceed to hear the petition and try any issue made by the objections filed; and if no such objection is sufficient, and the material allegations of the petition are true, it shall render judgment dissolving the corporation and directing such disposition of its assets as justice requires, and may appoint a receiver to collect such assets and pay the debts of the corporation. (Rule 104, RCa)

Section 120. Dissolution by shortening corporate term. - A voluntary dissolution may be effected by amending the articles of incorporation to shorten the corporate term pursuant to the provisions of this Code. A copy of the amended articles of incorporation shall be submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission in accordance with this Code. Upon approval of the amended articles of incorporation of the expiration of the shortened term, as the case may be, the corporation shall be deemed dissolved without any further proceedings, subject to the provisions of this Code on liquidation. (n)

Section 121. Involuntary dissolution. - A corporation may be dissolved by the Securities and Exchange Commission upon filing of a verified complaint and after proper notice and hearing on the grounds provided by existing laws, rules and regulations. (n)

Section 122. Corporate liquidation. - Every corporation whose charter expires by its own limitation or is annulled by forfeiture or otherwise, or whose corporate existence for other purposes is terminated in any other manner, shall nevertheless be continued as a body corporate for three (3) years after the time when it would have been so dissolved, for the purpose of prosecuting and defending suits by or against it and enabling it to settle and close its affairs, to dispose of and convey its property and to distribute its assets, but not for the purpose of continuing the business for which it was established.

At any time during said three (3) years, the corporation is authorized and empowered to convey all of its property to trustees for the benefit of stockholders, members, creditors, and other persons in interest. From and after any such conveyance by the corporation of its property in trust for the benefit of its stockholders, members, creditors and others in interest, all interest which the corporation had in the property terminates, the legal interest vests in the trustees, and the beneficial interest in the stockholders, members, creditors or other persons in interest.

Upon the winding up of the corporate affairs, any asset distributable to any creditor or stockholder or member who is unknown or cannot be found shall be escheated to the city or municipality where such assets are located.

Except by decrease of capital stock and as otherwise allowed by this Code, no corporation shall distribute any of its assets or property except upon lawful dissolution and after payment of all its debts and liabilities. (77a, 89a, 16a)

TITLE XV - FOREIGN CORPORATIONS

Section 123. Definition and rights of foreign corporations. - For the purposes of this Code, a foreign corporation is one formed, organized or existing under any laws other than those of the Philippines and whose laws allow Filipino citizens and corporations to do business in its own country or state. It shall have the right to transact business in the Philippines after it shall have obtained a license to transact business in this country in accordance with this Code and a certificate of authority from the appropriate government agency. (n)

Section 124. Application to existing foreign corporations. - Every foreign corporation which on the date of the effectivity of this Code is authorized to do business in the Philippines under a license therefore issued to it, shall continue to have such authority under the terms and condition of its license, subject to the provisions of this Code and other special laws. (n)

Section 125. Application for a license. - A foreign corporation applying for a license to transact business in the Philippines shall submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission a copy of its articles of incorporation and by-laws, certified in accordance with law, and their translation to an official language of the Philippines, if necessary. The application shall be under oath and, unless already stated in its articles of incorporation, shall specifically set forth the following:

1. The date and term of incorporation;

2. The address, including the street number, of the principal office of the corporation in the country or state of incorporation;

3. The name and address of its resident agent authorized to accept summons and process in all legal proceedings and, pending the establishment of a local office, all notices affecting the corporation;

4. The place in the Philippines where the corporation intends to operate;

5. The specific purpose or purposes which the corporation intends to pursue in the transaction of its business in the Philippines: Provided, That said purpose or purposes are those specifically stated in the certificate of authority issued by the appropriate government agency;

6. The names and addresses of the present directors and officers of the corporation;

7. A statement of its authorized capital stock and the aggregate number of shares which the corporation has authority to issue, itemized by classes, par value of shares, shares without par value, and series, if any;

8. A statement of its outstanding capital stock and the aggregate number of shares which the corporation has issued, itemized by classes, par value of shares, shares without par value, and series, if any;

9. A statement of the amount actually paid in; and

10. Such additional information as may be necessary or appropriate in order to enable the Securities and Exchange Commission to determine whether such corporation is entitled to a license to transact business in the Philippines, and to determine and assess the fees payable.

Attached to the application for license shall be a duly executed certificate under oath by the authorized official or officials of the jurisdiction of its incorporation, attesting to the fact that the laws of the country or state of the applicant allow Filipino citizens and corporations to do business therein, and that the applicant is an existing corporation in good standing. If such certificate is in a foreign language, a translation thereof in English under oath of the translator shall be attached thereto.

The application for a license to transact business in the Philippines shall likewise be accompanied by a statement under oath of the president or any other person authorized by the corporation, showing to the satisfaction of the Securities and Exchange Commission and other governmental agency in the proper cases that the applicant is solvent and in sound financial condition, and setting forth the assets and liabilities of the corporation as of the date not exceeding one (1) year immediately prior to the filing of the application.

Foreign banking, financial and insurance corporations shall, in addition to the above requirements, comply with the provisions of existing laws applicable to them. In the case of all other foreign corporations, no application for license to transact business in the Philippines shall be accepted by the Securities and Exchange Commission without previous authority from the appropriate government agency, whenever required by law. (68a)

Section 126. Issuance of a license. - If the Securities and Exchange Commission is satisfied that the applicant has complied with all the requirements of this Code and other special laws, rules and regulations, the Commission shall issue a license to the applicant to transact business in the Philippines for the purpose or purposes specified in such license. Upon issuance of the license, such foreign corporation may commence to transact business in the Philippines and continue to do so for as long as it retains its authority to act as a corporation under the laws of the country or state of its incorporation, unless such license is sooner surrendered, revoked, suspended or annulled in accordance with this Code or other special laws.

Within sixty (60) days after the issuance of the license to transact business in the Philippines, the license, except foreign banking or insurance corporation, shall deposit with the Securities and Exchange Commission for the benefit of present and future creditors of the licensee in the Philippines, securities satisfactory to the Securities and Exchange Commission, consisting of bonds or other evidence of indebtedness of the Government of the Philippines, its political subdivisions and instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, shares of stock in "registered enterprises" as this term is defined in Republic Act No. 5186, shares of stock in domestic corporations registered in the stock exchange, or shares of stock in domestic insurance companies and banks, or any combination of these kinds of securities, with an actual market value of at least one hundred thousand (P100,000.) pesos; Provided, however, That within six (6) months after each fiscal year of the licensee, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall require the licensee to deposit additional securities equivalent in actual market value to two (2%) percent of the amount by which the licensee's gross income for that fiscal year exceeds five million (P5,000,000.00) pesos. The Securities and Exchange Commission shall also require deposit of additional securities if the actual market value of the securities on deposit has decreased by at least ten (10%) percent of their actual market value at the time they were deposited. The Securities and Exchange Commission may at its discretion release part of the additional securities deposited with it if the gross income of the licensee has decreased, or if the actual market value of the total securities on deposit has increased, by more than ten (10%) percent of the actual market value of the securities at the time they were deposited. The Securities and Exchange Commission may, from time to time, allow the licensee to substitute other securities for those already on deposit as long as the licensee is solvent. Such licensee shall be entitled to collect the interest or dividends on the securities deposited. In the event the licensee ceases to do business in the Philippines, the securities deposited as aforesaid shall be returned, upon the licensee's application therefor and upon proof to the satisfaction of the Securities and Exchange Commission that the licensee has no liability to Philippine residents, including the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. (n)

Section 127. Who may be a resident agent. - A resident agent may be either an individual residing in the Philippines or a domestic corporation lawfully transacting business in the Philippines: Provided, That in the case of an individual, he must be of good moral character and of sound financial standing. (n)

Section 128. Resident agent; service of process. - The Securities and Exchange Commission shall require as a condition precedent to the issuance of the license to transact business in the Philippines by any foreign corporation that such corporation file with the Securities and Exchange Commission a written power of attorney designating some person who must be a resident of the Philippines, on whom any summons and other legal processes may be served in all actions or other legal proceedings against such corporation, and consenting that service upon such resident agent shall be admitted and held as valid as if served upon the duly authorized officers of the foreign corporation at its home office. Any such foreign corporation shall likewise execute and file with the Securities and Exchange Commission an agreement or stipulation, executed by the proper authorities of said corporation, in form and substance as follows:

"The (name of foreign corporation) does hereby stipulate and agree, in consideration of its being granted by the Securities and Exchange Commission a license to transact business in the Philippines, that if at any time said corporation shall cease to transact business in the Philippines, or shall be without any resident agent in the Philippines on whom any summons or other legal processes may be served, then in any action or proceeding arising out of any business or transaction which occurred in the Philippines, service of any summons or other legal process may be made upon the Securities and Exchange Commission and that such service shall have the same force and effect as if made upon the duly-authorized officers of the corporation at its home office."

Whenever such service of summons or other process shall be made upon the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Commission shall, within ten (10) days thereafter, transmit by mail a copy of such summons or other legal process to the corporation at its home or principal office. The sending of such copy by the Commission shall be necessary part of and shall complete such service. All expenses incurred by the Commission for such service shall be paid in advance by the party at whose instance the service is made.

In case of a change of address of the resident agent, it shall be his or its duty to immediately notify in writing the Securities and Exchange Commission of the new address. (72a; and n)

Section 129. Law applicable. - Any foreign corporation lawfully doing business in the Philippines shall be bound by all laws, rules and regulations applicable to domestic corporations of the same class, except such only as provide for the creation, formation, organization or dissolution of corporations or those which fix the relations, liabilities, responsibilities, or duties of stockholders, members, or officers of corporations to each other or to the corporation. (73a)

Section 130. Amendments to articles of incorporation or by-laws of foreign corporations. - Whenever the articles of incorporation or by-laws of a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Philippines are amended, such foreign corporation shall, within sixty (60) days after the amendment becomes effective, file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and in the proper cases with the appropriate government agency, a duly authenticated copy of the articles of incorporation or by-laws, as amended, indicating clearly in capital letters or by underscoring the change or changes made, duly certified by the authorized official or officials of the country or state of incorporation. The filing thereof shall not of itself enlarge or alter the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is authorized to transact business in the Philippines. (n)

Section 131. Amended license. - A foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall obtain an amended license in the event it changes its corporate name, or desires to pursue in the Philippines other or additional purposes, by submitting an application therefor to the Securities and Exchange Commission, favorably endorsed by the appropriate government agency in the proper cases. (n)

Section 132. Merger or consolidation involving a foreign corporation licensed in the Philippines. - One or more foreign corporations authorized to transact business in the Philippines may merge or consolidate with any domestic corporation or corporations if such is permitted under Philippine laws and by the law of its incorporation: Provided, That the requirements on merger or consolidation as provided in this Code are followed.

Whenever a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall be a party to a merger or consolidation in its home country or state as permitted by the law of its incorporation, such foreign corporation shall, within sixty (60) days after such merger or consolidation becomes effective, file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and in proper cases with the appropriate government agency, a copy of the articles of merger or consolidation duly authenticated by the proper official or officials of the country or state under the laws of which merger or consolidation was effected: Provided, however, That if the absorbed corporation is the foreign corporation doing business in the Philippines, the latter shall at the same time file a petition for withdrawal of its license in accordance with this Title. (n)

Section 133. Doing business without a license. - No foreign corporation transacting business in the Philippines without a license, or its successors or assigns, shall be permitted to maintain or intervene in any action, suit or proceeding in any court or administrative agency of the Philippines; but such corporation may be sued or proceeded against before Philippine courts or administrative tribunals on any valid cause of action recognized under Philippine laws. (69a)

Section 134. Revocation of license. - Without prejudice to other grounds provided by special laws, the license of a foreign corporation to transact business in the Philippines may be revoked or suspended by the Securities and Exchange Commission upon any of the following grounds:

1. Failure to file its annual report or pay any fees as required by this Code;

2. Failure to appoint and maintain a resident agent in the Philippines as required by this Title;

3. Failure, after change of its resident agent or of his address, to submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission a statement of such change as required by this Title;

4. Failure to submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission an authenticated copy of any amendment to its articles of incorporation or by-laws or of any articles of merger or consolidation within the time prescribed by this Title;

5. A misrepresentation of any material matter in any application, report, affidavit or other document submitted by such corporation pursuant to this Title;

6. Failure to pay any and all taxes, imposts, assessments or penalties, if any, lawfully due to the Philippine Government or any of its agencies or political subdivisions;

7. Transacting business in the Philippines outside of the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is authorized under its license;

8. Transacting business in the Philippines as agent of or acting for and in behalf of any foreign corporation or entity not duly licensed to do business in the Philippines; or

9. Any other ground as would render it unfit to transact business in the Philippines. (n)

Section 135. Issuance of certificate of revocation. - Upon the revocation of any such license to transact business in the Philippines, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall issue a corresponding certificate of revocation, furnishing a copy thereof to the appropriate government agency in the proper cases.

The Securities and Exchange Commission shall also mail to the corporation at its registered office in the Philippines a notice of such revocation accompanied by a copy of the certificate of revocation. (n)

Section 136. Withdrawal of foreign corporations. - Subject to existing laws and regulations, a foreign corporation licensed to transact business in the Philippines may be allowed to withdraw from the Philippines by filing a petition for withdrawal of license. No certificate of withdrawal shall be issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission unless all the following requirements are met;

1. All claims which have accrued in the Philippines have been paid, compromised or settled;

2. All taxes, imposts, assessments, and penalties, if any, lawfully due to the Philippine Government or any of its agencies or political subdivisions have been paid; and

3. The petition for withdrawal of license has been published once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines.

TITLE XVI - MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 137. Outstanding capital stock defined. - The term "outstanding capital stock", as used in this Code, means the total shares of stock issued under binding subscription agreements to subscribers or stockholders, whether or not fully or partially paid, except treasury shares. (n)

Section 138. Designation of governing boards. - The provisions of specific provisions of this Code to the contrary notwithstanding, non-stock or special corporations may, through their articles of incorporation or their by-laws, designate their governing boards by any name other than as board of trustees. (n)

Section 139. Incorporation and other fees. - The Securities and Exchange Commission is hereby authorized to collect and receive fees as authorized by law or by rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission. (n)

Section 140. Stock ownership in certain corporations. - Pursuant to the duties specified by Article XIV of the Constitution, the National Economic and Development Authority shall, from time to time, make a determination of whether the corporate vehicle has been used by any corporation or by business or industry to frustrate the provisions thereof or of applicable laws, and shall submit to the Batasang Pambansa, whenever deemed necessary, a report of its findings, including recommendations for their prevention or correction.

Maximum limits may be set by the Batasang Pambansa for stockholdings in corporations declared by it to be vested with a public interest pursuant to the provisions of this section, belonging to individuals or groups of individuals related to each other by consanguinity or affinity or by close business interests, or whenever it is necessary to achieve national objectives, prevent illegal monopolies or combinations in restraint or trade, or to implement national economic policies declared in laws, rules and regulations designed to promote the general welfare and foster economic development.

In recommending to the Batasang Pambansa corporations, businesses or industries to be declared vested with a public interest and in formulating proposals for limitations on stock ownership, the National Economic and Development Authority shall consider the type and nature of the industry, the size of the enterprise, the economies of scale, the geographic location, the extent of Filipino ownership, the labor intensity of the activity, the export potential, as well as other factors which are germane to the realization and promotion of business and industry.

Section 141. Annual report or corporations. - Every corporation, domestic or foreign, lawfully doing business in the Philippines shall submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission an annual report of its operations, together with a financial statement of its assets and liabilities, certified by any independent certified public accountant in appropriate cases, covering the preceding fiscal year and such other requirements as the Securities and Exchange Commission may require. Such report shall be submitted within such period as may be prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission. (n)

Section 142. Confidential nature of examination results. - All interrogatories propounded by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the answers thereto, as well as the results of any examination made by the Commission or by any other official authorized by law to make an examination of the operations, books and records of any corporation, shall be kept strictly confidential, except insofar as the law may require the same to be made public or where such interrogatories, answers or results are necessary to be presented as evidence before any court. (n)

Section 143. Rule-making power of the Securities and Exchange Commission. - The Securities and Exchange Commission shall have the power and authority to implement the provisions of this Code, and to promulgate rules and regulations reasonably necessary to enable it to perform its duties hereunder, particularly in the prevention of fraud and abuses on the part of the controlling stockholders, members, directors, trustees or officers. (n)

Section 144. Violations of the Code. - Violations of any of the provisions of this Code or its amendments not otherwise specifically penalized therein shall be punished by a fine of not less than one thousand (P1,000.00) pesos but not more than ten thousand (P10,000.00) pesos or by imprisonment for not less than thirty (30) days but not more than five (5) years, or both, in the discretion of the court. If the violation is committed by a corporation, the same may, after notice and hearing, be dissolved in appropriate proceedings before the Securities and Exchange Commission: Provided, That such dissolution shall not preclude the institution of appropriate action against the director, trustee or officer of the corporation responsible for said violation: Provided, further, That nothing in this section shall be construed to repeal the other causes for dissolution of a corporation provided in this Code. (190 1/2 a)

Section 145. Amendment or repeal. - No right or remedy in favor of or against any corporation, its stockholders, members, directors, trustees, or officers, nor any liability incurred by any such corporation, stockholders, members, directors, trustees, or officers, shall be removed or impaired either by the subsequent dissolution of said corporation or by any subsequent amendment or repeal of this Code or of any part thereof. (n)

Section 146. Repealing clause. - Except as expressly provided by this Code, all laws or parts thereof inconsistent with any provision of this Code shall be deemed repealed. (n)

Section 147. Separability of provisions. - Should any provision of this Code or any part thereof be declared invalid or unconstitutional, the other provisions, so far as they are separable, shall remain in force. (n)

Section 148. Applicability to existing corporations. - All corporations lawfully existing and doing business in the Philippines on the date of the effectivity of this Code and heretofore authorized, licensed or registered by the Securities and Exchange Commission, shall be deemed to have been authorized, licensed or registered under the provisions of this Code, subject to the terms and conditions of its license, and shall be governed by the provisions hereof: Provided, That if any such corporation is affected by the new requirements of this Code, said corporation shall, unless otherwise herein provided, be given a period of not more than two (2) years from the effectivity of this Code within which to comply with the same. (n)

Section 149. Effectivity. - This Code shall take effect immediately upon its approval.

Approved, May 1, 1980