Guidelines for the Exercise of the Right to Organize of Government Employees, etc.

[EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 180]
June 01, 1987

PROVIDING GUIDELINES FOR THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT TO ORGANIZE OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, CREATING A PUBLIC SECTOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT COUNCIL, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
In accordance with the provision of the 1987 Constitution, I, CORAZON C. AQUINO, President of the Philippines, do hereby order:

I. Coverage


SECTION 1. This Executive Order applies to all employees of all branches, subdivision, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters.  For this purpose, employees covered by this Executive Order shall be referred to as “government employees”.

SECTION 2. All government employees can form, join or assist employees’ organizations of their own choosing for the furtherance and protection of their interests.  They can also form, in conjunction with appropriate government authorities, labor-management committees, works councils and other forms of workers’ participation schemes to achieve the same objectives.

SECTION 3. High-level employees whose functions are normally considered as policy-making or managerial or whose duties are of a highly confidential nature shall not be eligible to join the organization of rank-and-file government employees.

SECTION 4. The Executive Order shall not apply to the members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, including police officers, policemen, firemen and jail guards.

II. Protection of the Right to Organize


SECTION 5. Government employees shall not be discriminated against in respect of their employment by reason of their membership in employees’ organizations or participation in the normal activities of their organization.  Their employment shall not be subject to the condition that they shall not join or shall relinquish their membership in the employees’ organizations.

SECTION 6. Government authorities shall not interfere in the establishment, functioning or administration of government employees’ organizations through acts designated to place such organizations under the control of government authority.

III. Registration of Employees’ Organization


SECTION 7. Government employees’ organizations shall register with the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Labor and Employment.  The application shall be filed with the Bureau of Labor Relations of the Department which shall process the same in accordance with the provisions of the Labor Code of the Philippines, as amended.  Applications may also be filed with the Regional Offices of the Department of Labor and Employment which shall immediately transmit the said applications to the Bureau of Labor Relations within three (3) days from receipt thereof.

SECTION 8. Upon approval of the application, a registration certificates shall be issued to the organization recognizing it as a legitimate employees’ organization with the right to represent its members and undertake activities to further and defend its interests.  The corresponding certificates of registration shall be jointly approved by the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and Secretary of Labor and Employment.

IV. Sole and Exclusive Employees’ Representatives


SECTION 9. The appropriate organizational unit shall be the employees unit consisting of rank-and-file employees unless circumstances otherwise require.

SECTION 10. The duly registered employees’ organization having the support of the majority of the employees in the appropriate organizational unit shall be designated as the sole and exclusive representative of the employees.

SECTION 11. A duly registered employees’ organization shall be accorded voluntary recognition upon a showing that no other employees’ organization is registered or is seeking registration, based on records of the Bureau of Labor and Relations, and that the said organization had the majority support of the rank-and-file employees in the organizational unit.

SECTION 12. Where there are two or more duly registered employees’ organizations in the appropriate organizational unit, the Bureau of Labor Relations shall, upon petition, order the conduct of a certification election and shall certify the winner as the exclusive representative of the rank-and-file employees in said organization unit.

V. Terms and Conditions of Employment in Government Services


SECTION 13. Terms and conditions of employment or improvements thereof, except those that are fixed by law, may be the subject of negotiations between duly recognized employees’ organizations and appropriate government authorities.

Peaceful Concerted Activities and Strikes


SECTION 14. The Civil Service law and rules governing concerted activities and strikes in government service shall be observed, subject to any legislation that may be enacted by Congress.

Public Sector Labor-Management Council


SECTION 15. A Public Sector Labor-Management Council, hereinafter referred to as the Council, is hereby constituted to be composed of the following:

1)Chairman, Civil Service Commission- Chairman
2)Secretary, Department of Labor and
Employment
- Vice Chairman
3)Secretary, Department of Finance- Member
4)Secretary, Department of Justice- Member
5)Secretary, Department of Budget
and Management
- Member


The Council shall implement and administer the provisions of this Executive Order.  For this purpose, the Council shall promulgate the necessary rules and regulations to implement this Executive Order.

VIII. Settlement of Disputes


SECTION 16. The Civil Service and labor laws and procedures, whenever applicable, shall be followed in resolution of complaints, grievances and cases involving government employees.  In case any dispute remains unresolved after exhausting all the available remedies under existing laws and procedures, the parties may jointly refer the dispute to the Council, for appropriate action.

IX. Effectivity


SECTION 17. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.

Done in the City of Manila, this 1st day of June in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and eighty-seven.

(Sgd.) CORAZON C. AQUINO


By the President:

(Sgd.) JOKER P. ARROYO
Executive Secretary

WHEREAS, it is necessary to further protect the level of real wages from the ravage of worldwide inflation;
 
WHEREAS, there has been no increase in the legal minimum wage rates since 1970;
 
WHEREAS, the Christmas season is an opportune time for society to show its concern for the plight of the working masses so they may properly celebrate Christmas and New Year.
 
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby decree as follows:
 
Section 1. All employers are hereby required to pay all their employees receiving a basic salary of not more than P1,000 a month, regardless of the nature of their employment, a 13th-month pay not later than December 24 of every year.
 
Sec. 2. Employers already paying their employees a 13th-month pay or its equivalent are not covered by this Decree.
 
Sec. 3. This Decree shall take effect immediately.
 
Done in the City of Manila, this 16th day of December 1975.

To insure uniformity in the interpretation, application and enforcement of the provisions of Presidential Decree No. 851 and its implementing regulations, the following clarifications are hereby made for the information and guidance of all concerned:
 
1. Contractors and Subcontractors, including Security and Watchman Agencies, are exempt for the year 1975 subject to the following conditions:

      (a) that the contracts of such enterprises were entered into before December 16, 1975;
       
      (b) that such enterprises have complied with all labor standards laws during the year;
       
      (c) that the contract cannot really accomodate 13-month pay or its equivalent; and
       
      (d) that the contract does not provide for cost escalation clause.

This exemption is without prejudice on the part of the workers to negotiate with their employers or to seek payment thereof by filing appropriate complaints with the Regional Offices of the Department of Labor.
 
2. Private school teachers, including faculty members of colleges and universities, are entitled to 1/12 of their annual basic pay regardless of the number of months they teach or are paid within a year.
 
3. New establishments operating for less than one year are not covered except subsidiaries or branches of foreign and domestic corporations.
 
4. Overtime pay, earnings and other remunerations which are not part of the basic salary shall not be included in the computation of the 13th-month pay.
 
5. In view of the lack of sufficient time for the dissemination of the provisions of P.D. No. 851 and its Rules and the unavailability of adequate cash flow due to the long holiday season, compliance and reporting of compliance with this Decree are hereby extended up to March 31, 1976 except in private schools where compliance for 1975 may be made not later than 30 June 1976.
 
6. Nothing herein shall sanction the withdrawal or diminution of any compensation, benefits or any supplements being enjoyed by the employees on the effective date of this issuance.
 
Manila, January 16, 1976
By virtue of the powers vested in me by law, the following rules and regulations implementing Presidential Decree No. 851 are hereby issued for the guidance of all concerned.
 
Section 1. Payment of 13th-month Pay. - All employers covered by Presidential Decree No. 851, hereinafter referred to as the "Decree", shall pay to all their employees receiving a basic salary of not more than P1,000 a month a thirteenth-month pay not later than December 24 of every year.
 
Sec. 2. Definition of certain terms. - As used in this issuance:

      (a) "Thirteenth-month pay" shall mean one twelfth (1/12) of the basic salary of an employee within a calendar year;
       
      (b) "Basic salary" shall include all remunerations or earnings paid by an employer to an employee for services rendered but may not include cost-of-living allowances granted pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 525 or Letter of Instructions No. 174, profit-sharing payments, and all allowances and monetary benefits which are not considered or integrated as part of the regular or basic salary of the employee at the time of the promulgation of the Decree on December 16, 1975.

Sec. 3. Employers covered. - The Decree shall apply to all employers except to:

      (a) Distressed employers, such as (1) those which are currently incurring substantial losses or (2) in the case of non-profit institutions and organizations, where their income, whether from donations, contributions, grants and other earnings from any source, has consistently declined by more than forty (40%) percent of their normal income for the last two (2) years, subject to the provision of Section 7 of this issuance;
       
      (b) The Government and any of its political subdivisions, including government-owned and controlled corporations, except those corporations operating essentially as private subsidiaries of the Government;
       
      (c) Employers already paying their employees 13-month pay or more in a calendar year or its equivalent at the time of this issuance;
       
      (d) Employers of household helpers and persons in the personal service of another in relation to such workers; and
       
      (e) Employers of those who are paid on purely commission, boundary, or task basis, and those who are paid a fixed amount for performing a specific work, irrespective of the time consumed in the performance thereof, except where the workers are paid on piece-rate basis in which case the employer shall be covered by this issuance insofar as such workers are concerned.

As used herein, workers paid on piece-rate basis shall refer to those who are paid a standard amount for every piece or unit of work produced that is more or less regularly replicated, without regard to the time spent in producing the same.
 
The term "its equivalent" as used in paragraph c) hereof shall include Christmas bonus, mid-year bonus, profit-sharing payments and other cash bonuses amounting to not less than 1/12th of the basic salary but shall not include cash and stock dividends, cost of living allowances and all other allowances regularly enjoyed by the employee, as well as non-monetary benefits. Where an employer pays less than 1/12th of the employees basic salary, the employer shall pay the difference.
 
Sec. 4. Employees covered. - Except as provided in Section 3 of this issuance, all employees of covered employers shall be entitled to benefit provided under the Decree who are receiving not more than P1,000 a month, regardless of their position, designation or employment status, and irrespective of the method by which their wages are paid, provided that they have worked for at least one month during the calendar year.
 
Sec. 5. Option of covered employers. - A covered employer may pay one-half of the 13th-month pay required by the Decree before the opening of the regular school year and the other half on or before the 24th day of December of every year.
 
In any establishment where a union has been recognized or certified as the collective bargaining agent of the employees therein, the periodicity or frequency of payment of the 13th-month pay may be the subject of agreement.
 
Nothing herein shall prevent employers from giving the benefits provided in the Decree to their employees who are receiving more than One Thousand (P1,000) Pesos a month or benefits higher than those provided by the Decree.
 
Sec. 6. Special feature of benefit. - The benefits granted under this issuance shall not be credited as part of the regular wage of the employees for purposes of determining overtime and premium pay, fringe benefits, as well as premium contributions to the State Insurance Fund, social security, medicare and private welfare and retirement plans.
 
Sec. 7. Exemption of Distressed employers. - Distressed employers shall qualify for exemption from the requirement of the Decree upon prior authorization by the Secretary of Labor. Petitions for exemptions may be filed within the nearest regional office having jurisdiction over the employer not later than January 15, 1976. The regional offices shall transmit the petitions to the Secretary of Labor within 24 hours from receipt thereof.
 
Sec. 8. Report of compliance. - Every covered employer shall make a report of his compliance with the Decree to the nearest regional labor office not later than January 15 of each year.
 
The report shall conform substantially with the following form:
 
REPORT ON COMPLIANCE WITH P.D. NO. 851

            1. Name of establishment
            2. Address
            3. Principal product or business
            4. Total employment
            5. Total number of workers benefited
            6. Amount granted per employee
            7. Total amount of benefits granted
            8. Name, position and tel. no. of person giving information

Sec. 9. Adjudication of claims. - Non-payment of the thirteenth-month pay provided by the Decree and these rules shall be treated as money claims cases and shall be processed in accordance with the Rules Implementing the Labor Code of the Philippines and the Rules of the National Labor Relations Commission.
 
Sec. 10. Prohibition against reduction or elimination of
benefits. - Nothing herein shall be construed to authorize any employer to eliminate, or diminish in any way, supplements, or other employee benefits or favorable practice being enjoyed by the employee at the time of promulgation of this issuance.
 
Sec. 11. Transitory Provision. - These rules and regulations shall take effect immediately and for purposes of the 13th-month pay for 1975, the same shall apply only to those who are employees as of December 16, 1975.
 
Manila, Philippines, 22 December 1975.
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 851
 
ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 2, SERIES OF 1976
  
In the interest of public service and efficiency, more particularly to facilitate the disposition of cases involving petitions for exemption, complaints, enforcement and implementation of P.D. No. 851 and its implementing rules and regulations, the following guidelines shall be followed:
 
I. Petition for exemption
 
1. The Regional Office concerned shall transmit immediately the petition for exemption to the Chairman, Wage Commission with comments and recommendations, if any.
 
The petition shall contain a sworn statement on the inability to implement the Decree and the reasons, therefore, and shall be accompanied by the following documents and statements:

      (a) A certified true copy of the income tax returns for the last two (2) years;
       
      (b) A certified copy of the financial reports for the last two (2) years filed with the Government entities, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission, Department of Trade, Department of Industries and Board of Investments;
       
      (c) A detailed sworn statement of the actual monthly losses not covered by the report required under paragraph (b) above and such other proofs or documents as may be required by the Chairman, Wage Commission to establish such exemption.

2. The Chairman, Wage Commission and the duly designated staff, shall evaluate all petitions for exemption and make appropriate recommendations within 20 working days from receipt of the petition to the Secretary of Labor.
 
3. Whenever a petition for exemption has been filed, and complaint for
non-compliance shall be held in abeyance pending the disposition or resolution of the petition for exemption.
 
II. Complaint, enforcement and/or implementation
 
1. All complaints for non-payment of the 13th-month pay shall be filed with the Field Services Division of the Regional Office concerned. The Regional Director shall direct the said Division to conduct an inspection and investigation in connection with the complaint filed.
 
2. The Field Service Division of the Regional Office concerned shall see to it that all covered employees comply with P.D. No. 851.
 
The Regional Director shall submit a monthly progress report of compliance with the Decree.
 
The reports of the Regional Offices shall be submitted to the LSS and BLS, and shall contain the following:

      (a) The total number of establishments;
      (b) total number of workers benefited; and
      (c) total amount of benefits paid.

3. The Regional Office shall compile, analyze and evaluate compliance reports and update the listing of establishments on the basis of the reports submitted.
 
Any prior order, circular, instruction or memorandum or parts thereof, inconsistent herewith are hereby revoked.
 
This Order shall take effect immediately.
 
Manila, 9 January 1976.