THE EFFECT OF ACQUITTAL ON THE CIVIL ACTION
> The general rule is that the civil action is not necessarily extinguished by the acquittal of the accused. Even if the accused is acquitted, the court can still award civil liability in the following cases:
1. When the acquittal is based on reasonable doubt and there was no negligence
2. When there is a declaration in the decision that the liability of the accused is only civil
3. When the civil liability is not derived from or based on the criminal act of which the accused is acquitted (independent civil actions)
> However, if the decision contains a finding that the act from which the civil liability may arise doesn’t exist, the civil liability is extinguished
WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF ACQUITTAL?
1. Acquittal based on reasonable doubt
2. Acquittal based on the merits—he didn't commit the crime
CAN YOU COMPEL A JUDGE BY MANDAMUS TO AWARD CIVIL DAMAGES?
> Yes, because every person criminally liable is also civilly liable
> Another reason is that even if the accused is acquitted, there are cases when he is still civilly liable
WHAT IS THE REASON FOR ALLOWING CIVIL LIABILITY TO SUBSIST IN SPITE OF THE ACQUITTAL OF THE ACCUSED?
> The reason is that the parties in the criminal and civil actions are different—in the criminal action, the party is the state, while in the civil action, the party is the private offended party
> Also, the two actions require different quantities of evidence—the criminal action requires proof of guilt beyond reasonable doubt, the civil action on the other hand, requires mere preponderance of evidence