Kinds and Definition of Slander or Oral Defamation



Speaking of base and defamatory words which tend to prejudice another in his reputation, office, trade, business or means of livelihood


Two kinds of oral or verbal defamation:

(1) Grave Slander

(2) Simple Slander


A. Factors to consider:

1. The expression used including their sense, grammatical significance and accepted ordinary meaning

2. The personal relations of the accused and the offended party, as when both are bitter enemies

3. The special circumstances of the case and its antecedents, such as the time, place and occasion of the utterances, persons present

4. The social standing and position of the offended party


B. Words uttered in the heat of anger or in a quarrel, with some provocation on the part of the victim, is simple slander.

> The victim may not have heard the words, it is enough that a third person heard them.

> Words uttered in one occasion and place and directed at several persons not mentioned individually constitute only one offense.

> Words used as expletives (to express anger, displeasure, are not defamatory)


What is Slander By Deed?

The performance of any act which shall cast dishonor, discredit or contempt upon another person. Depending upon the seriousness of the act, the time, place, occasion, the character of the victim, it is either Grave or Light.