Crimes In Violation of the Freedom of Religion.


ART. 132 Revised Penal Code.  Interruption of Religious Worship


I. Concept: The crime committed by any public officer or employee who shall prevent or disturb the manifestations or ceremonies of any religion.


II. Manifestation or ceremonies refer to the rituals or rites or practices such as the holding of a mass or religious service, baptisms and other sacraments or prayer meetings.


  A. They may be unorthodox such as crying, dancing, gyrating or with the use of props

B. They extend to all kinds of worships so long as these are not indecent or violative of laws or public morals 


III. The term any religion is broad enough to include not only the institutional religions, whether Christian or not 


ART. 133 Revised Penal Code- Offending Against Religious Feelings


I.. Concept or essence: the crime committed by any person- i.e. a public officer or a private person, who performs acts notoriously offensive to the feelings of the faithful which are committed either: (i) in a place dedicated to religious worship or (ii) during the celebration of any religious ceremony.


II. The act contemplated is one which ridicules or makes fun of a practice, tenet, dogma, or belief, otherwise the offense is unjust vexation. These may be oral  or written statements or actions. 


III. Whether the act is offensive is to be viewed from the members of the religious group involved