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CERTIFICATE OF TITLE ISSUED PURSUANT TO A PATENT INDEFEASIBLE

> Once the patent is registered and the corresponding certificate of title is issued, the land ceases to be part of the public domain and becomes private property over which the Director of Lands has neither control nor jurisdiction


> Partakes of a nature of a certificate of title issued through judicial proceeding


> It has in its favor the presumption of regularity


> It becomes incontrovertible upon the expiration of 1 year from the date of the order for issuance of the patent, hence, prescription cannot operate against the registered owner

TITLE NOT DEFEATED BY ADVERSE POSSESSION