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OBLIGATIONS OF THE BAILEE

 
Art.  1941.  The  bailee  is  obliged  to  pay  for  the  ordinary expenses for the use and preservation of the thing loaned. (1743a)
 
Art. 1942. The bailee is liable for the loss of the thing, even if it should be through a fortuitous event:

(1)  If  he  devotes  the  thing  to  any  purpose  different  from that for which it has been loaned;

(2) If he keeps it longer than the period stipulated, or after the accomplishment of the use for which the commodatum has been constituted;

(3) If the thing loaned has been delivered with appraisal of its value, unless there is a stipulation exemption the bailee from responsibility in case of a fortuitous event;

(4) If he lends or leases the thing to a third person, who is not a member of his household;

(5) If, being able to save either the thing  borrowed  or  his own thing, he chose to save the latter. (1744a and 1745)
 
Art. 1943. The bailee does not answer for the deterioration of the thing loaned due only to the use thereof and without his fault. (1746)
 
Art. 1944. The bailee cannot retain the thing loaned on the ground that the bailor owes him something, even though it may  be  by  reason  of  expenses.  However,  the  bailee  has  a right  of  retention  for  damages  mentioned  in  Article  1951. (1747a)

Art.  1945.  When there are two or more bailees to whom a thing  is  loaned  in  the  same  contract,  they  are  liable solidarily. (1748a)
 

OBLIGATIONS OF THE BAILEE

1.   The  bailee  is  liable  for  ordinary  expenses—the  borrower should defray the expenses for the use and preservation of the  thing  loaned  for  after  all,  he  acquires  the  use  of  the same and he is supposed to return the identical thing
2.   The  borrower  must  take  good  care  of  the  thing  with  the diligence of a good father of a family (due diligence)
3.   Generally, the borrower would not be liable for the loss of a thing due to a fortuitous event but he would be liable in case of the following circumstances:
a.    If  he  devotes  the  thing  to  any  purpose  different from that for which it has been loaned;
b.   If he keeps it longer than the period stipulated, or after the accomplishment of the use for which the
commodatum has been constituted;
c.    If   the   thing   loaned   has   been   delivered   with appraisal  of its value,  unless there is a stipulation
exemption the bailee from responsibility in case of a fortuitous event;
d.   If  he  lends  or  leases  the  thing  to  a  third  person, who is not a member of his household;
e.    If, being able to save either the thing borrowed or his own thing, he  chose to  save the latter. (JPSP:
should  be  considered  as  an  exemption.    This  is actually  based  on  ingratitude.    Nonetheless,  this
provision  tends  to  control  one’s  instinct  for  self-preservation)
4.   The  bailee  is  not  liable  for  the  deterioration  of  the  thing loaned due only to the use thereof and without his fault
5.   He cannot retain the thing loaned  on the ground that the bailor owes him something, even though it may be for the reason  of  expenses.    He  can  have  the  right  to  retain though  for  damages  as  mentioned  in  Article  1951—“The bailor who, knowing the flaws of the thing loaned, does not
advise the bailee of the same, shall be liable to the latter for the damages which he may suffer by reason thereof”.
6.   When  there  are  two  or  more  bailees  to  whom  a  thing  is loaned  in  the  same  contract,  they  are  liable  solidarily  to the bailor
a.    To safeguard effectively the rights of the lender b.   Law  presumes  that  the  bailor  takes  into  account the  personal  integrity  and  responsibility  of  all  the bailees  and  that,  therefore,  he  would  not  have constituted  the  commodatum  is  there  were  only one liable